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Prophet Mohammad's Farewell Sermon (PBUH) An Eclectic Essence of Arabic Discourse Associ. Prof. Rafi' M. Hussein College of Arts, Univ. of Anbar Instructor Juma'a Q. Hussein College of Education for Humanities, Univ. of Anbar Abstract Arabic discourse, though mostly ostensive in nature, might reflect some phatic and associative premises of the so-then-termed the Felicity Conditions. It has apparent collocations with thematic, alongwith other implications being conceptual or otherwise reflective which might highly be culminated by probing some acuminated celebrity of Arabic "spoken" acts sampling to agglutinate relevant thoughts affiliated to eponyms: Austin, Grice, and Searle, to name but few. Rather ephemeral, these approaches divulgate par excellence an atypical scale for presenting an excelled piece of literary oration eloquent in style elutriating in content elucidating a whole syntagmatic and paradigmatic value. For his elocution (Peace be Upon Him) which stemmed from his holy loving personality would not be only elicitated in its "Speech Acts" and the framework of "felicitous (appropriate or happen) conditions”, truth- conditioned relations and non truth-conditioned relations mapped. His startling utterances and propositions acclaimed in his" Expressions" focalizes a whole theorem being social, psychological, or ethical. The Farewell Oration is an "evening and morning star" in the human consciousness; a background and spine for legislation and worldly view of attitudes. It is a vision of communication which discards oddness and engraves appropriateness in whatever the text aimed at. Virtually, the text is narrated in a number of

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Prophet Mohammad's Farewell Sermon (PBUH)

An Eclectic Essence of Arabic Discourse

Associ. Prof. Rafi' M. Hussein

College of Arts, Univ. of Anbar

Instructor Juma'a Q. Hussein

College of Education for Humanities, Univ. of Anbar


Arabic discourse, though mostly ostensive in nature,might reflect some phatic and associative premises of theso-then-termed the Felicity Conditions. It has apparentcollocations with thematic, alongwith other implicationsbeing conceptual or otherwise reflective which mighthighly be culminated by probing some acuminated celebrityof Arabic "spoken" acts sampling to agglutinate relevantthoughts affiliated to eponyms: Austin, Grice, andSearle, to name but few. Rather ephemeral, theseapproaches divulgate par excellence an atypical scale forpresenting an excelled piece of literary oration eloquentin style elutriating in content elucidating a wholesyntagmatic and paradigmatic value. For his elocution(Peace be Upon Him) which stemmed from his holy lovingpersonality would not be only elicitated in its "SpeechActs" and the framework of "felicitous (appropriate orhappen) conditions”, truth- conditioned relations and nontruth-conditioned relations mapped. His startlingutterances and propositions acclaimed in his"Expressions" focalizes a whole theorem being social,psychological, or ethical. The Farewell Oration is an"evening and morning star" in the human consciousness; abackground and spine for legislation and worldly view ofattitudes. It is a vision of communication which discardsoddness and engraves appropriateness in whatever the textaimed at. Virtually, the text is narrated in a number of

books1; whereas its translation is geared up by more thanone of the net's "noddles".The citations might includeother Prophet’s PBUH Hadiths consequently quoted without

the least intend to question their validity.1. Introduction

The main argument of this paper springs from thepremise that Prophet Mohammad's (peace be upon him)choice of utterances in his Farewell Sermon (khutbatu-lwada'i) plays distinguished role in establishinginterpersonal communication with his followers.2 Hisutterances were perfectly attuned to the situation for hePBUH felt that was his last meeting in which certain

facts are to be eavesdropped obligingly. To explore the text of his oration and an English

version of the same with reference to the Speech ActTheory (henceforth SATh)postulated by Austin in hislectures (1962) a brief overview of the communicativefunction of the included utterances is outlined. Austin(ibid:6-8) stresses the role played by the utterances inattending the intended/ (in-) visible aim of thediscourse. As such, SATh is a theory of language use .Itmerges "the linguistic knowledge of users and knowledgeof the world" which makes it possible to communicate.According to the revised SATh the communicative functionsof the discourse might be labeled as the locutionary actwhich is the medium via which intentions or theillocutionary act is established. The effect of thespeech on his audience is the perlocutionary effect(Austin, ibid: 107-109; 118-120). As such, locutionaryacts are those uttered with definite literal meaning(conceptual and referential).Virtually, they can bedivided into: phonetic with certain sounds; phatic with

sounds of specific lexicon within certain syntactic net;then, the rhetoric with rather indefinite conceptual andreferential meaning which casts the distributionalequivalent meaning. The illocutionary act, on the otherhand, is the contextual meaning of the utterance itself.Lastly, it is the output of the effects produced by theutterance. (Austin,


Performative actions ,he compounds, mightbe met only if they observe specific linguistic andextra-linguistic setting i.e. textual and contextualfactors (Austin,ibid:26-39).He takes on the notions thatcommunication would not be possible via utterances unlessthey felicitious. The crux of felicity conditions, heprecludes, can be summarized as follows: The existence ofaccepted conventions with recognized conventionaleffect , specific users and conditions, properfulfillment of procedures and relevantintentions(ibid:14-15;131). Grundy (2000:52-53),however, specifies two forms of performatives viz.: theexplicit and the implicit. Both can be classifieddepending on the contextual information rather than theirtextual differences.

Further, he explained that (ibid: 151-162)illocutionary acts might be classified into five classes

depending on a lexical classification of the verb used: 1 .Verdicatives: giving a verdict, estimate

ها( 1) ي دأأ� ب�� ف� أ� أ أل�موق�� هد� أ ي�� عد ع�امي ه�د� اك�م ب�� ل�ق� دري ل�علي لا أ� �ي لا أ� ن ا� ولي ف�� اس أس�معوأ ق� 3 أل�ن�

=(O people! Listen to what I will explain to you, for I donot know if I would meet you again after this year on

such an occasion as this )…2 .Commissives: declaring a promise

ي 2) ن�7 ه لا ر ي أل�له أن�� ض� 4 ( ق�� =(…and every transgression in this behalf is unlawful).

حرم�وأ3) وأ ع�دة� م�ا ح�رم أل�له وي وط�ئ� ه ع�ام�ا ل�ئ حرم�ون�� ه ع�ام�ا وي حلون�� نO ك�ف�روأ ي� ي7 ه أل�د� ل ن�� ض� ي أل�كف�ر ي� ادة� ف� ب ءX ر� سي ( أنO أل�ن� 5م�ا أح�ل أل�له

(=… wherewith those who disbelieve are led astray,violating it one year and keeping it sacred another, thatthey may agree in the number (of months) that Allah hasmade sacred…) Qur’an (9:37).

3 .Directives: exercising of power, invitation

لوأ 4) ع�ق� ا� ها(ف�� ي اس أمريأ� 6 أل�ن� =(…O servants of Allah, I exhort you to fear Allah and

urge to obey Him, and beseech Allah’s help to favor me

with what is good)… 4 .Expressives: expressing psychological attitude-personal

and social.

دة 5) ه�( ف��منO ك�انO ع�ن� م�ان�� ده�ا أ� و� لئ لي ف�� hل�كم رءوس أ Oوع ول�كن ا م�وض�� �ها وأنO ك�ل رب ه ع�لي ت�من� م�وأل�كم م�نO أئ�� لمونOأ� sظ لا ي��د أل�مظلب� نO ع�ن� اس ي�� ا ع�ن� �ا وأنO رب �ه لا رب ي أل�له أن�� ض� لمونO ق�� sظ 7ولا ي��

=(Whoever has a trust he should give it back to who have entrusted him with it. And the usury of pre-Islamic era is invalid, and the first usury I begin invalidating is

that of al-Abbass bin Abdul- Muttalib ) 5 .Expositive: expository acts of adapting words in

utterances to illustrate specific situation. (6 )Oن hدأر أ د أس�ن� م�انO ف�� ه أل�ز� ن� ئ} لق� أل�له أل�سموأت� ك�هن وم ح�� رض� ي� هرأ وألا� ر ش�� ا ع�ش� ن� ئ�7 د أل�له أ هور ع�ن� 8 وأنO ع�دة� أل�ش�

=(Time has certainly returned to its shape when it was on

the day Allah created the heavens and the earth.) Barring very exceptions, Searle's approach to the

theory established rules to produce "non-institutionalized speech acts"(Searle, 1969:9) which areused in the act of communication such as promising,

threatening, and ordering. 2 .Speech Act Theory (SATh)

The SATh hypothesizes that language is used to

perform certain acts, i.e., by uttering a sequence of

words, we are often trying to achieve some effect with

them – this effect might in some cases have been

accomplished by an alternative action. Basically, Austin

(1962:26-29; 148) defines a speech act as the act of

uttering a certain sentence in a given context for a

determined purpose, i.e., an act of communication. As

such , speech acts are actions performed via utterances (

Yule , 1996 : 47 ) ; or an utterance is a speech act

( Niazi , 2004: 9 ) . When a speaker under appropriate

context produces an utterance , he will perform acts such

as stating facts or opinions , promising ,

requesting ,offering , thanking or inviting , issuing an

order , giving an advice or permission , christening a

child , swearing an oath etc. to name but few (ibid 9-

10 ).Accordingly , language is not only used to make

statement, but to serve as an instrument for the

transmission of other kinds of information. Statements,

as well as questions, commands, exclamations, contain

certain amount of non – descriptive information which may

be characterized, broadly, as expressive and social.

Besides, the transmission of descriptive information is

not usually an end in itself. When we communicate some

proposition to another person, we wish to [assert] in

some way his belief, his attitudes or his behavior

(Lyons: 1977:725).

3. Austin's SATh

Austin (1962) starts his theory by making

distinction between constative and performative

utterances. The former are statements the function of

which is to describe some event, process or state of

affairs, and they have the property of being either true

or false. The latter, on the other hand, have no truth –

value, i. e., they are used to do something, rather than

to say that something is or is not the case, for example,

the sentences

لوأ ع�ق� ا� هاف�� ي ولي أ� اس ق� (7) 9 أل�ن� (= O people understand my words which I convey to you)

( 8) Oلمن sظ لا ي�� سكمف�� ف� ب�� ت� أ� لغ� 10 أل�لهم ه�ل ب��(=Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourself)

would be uttered to perform particular kind of acts which

, as Austin points out , could hardly be performed in

any other way . Thus, the distinction between constative

and performative utterances depends upon the distinction

between saying something by means of language (Lyons,

ibid: 726-7) .

Austin proceeds to distinguish performatives as

explicit performatives and implicit performatives.

Explicit performatives are those which have a

performative verb, i.e. a verb that names the action.

Implicit performatives, on the other hand, lack a saying

but none the less assume the presence of one. So, for


ولي "(9) اس أس�معوأ ق� ها أل�ن� ي 11"أ�

=) Listen to what I will explain to you (

can be expanded to

دأ (10) ف� أب�� أ أل�موق�� هد� أ ي�� عد ع�امي ه�د� اك�م ب�� ل�ق� دري ل�عليX لا أ� �ي لا أ� ن ا� ف��(= [I warn you] I do not know if [beware] I would you


(Finch, 2005: 172, and Palmer, 1981:161-


This leads Austin to conclude that utterances can be

said to perform three acts simultaneously:

1. A locutionary act which is the act of saying

something in the full sense of say;

2. An illocutionary act which is an act performed in

saying something ; and

3. A perlocutionary act, the act performed by or as a

result of saying.

(Coulthard, 1977: 18)

These acts are preformed simultaneously and

Austin states that it is the distinction between

illocutionary and perlocutionary which seems

likeliest to raise trouble. Basically, an

illocutionary act is a linguistic act performed in

uttering certain words in a given context while a

perlocutionary act is a non – linguistic act

performed as a consequence of the locutionary and

illocutionary acts. This illocutionary act is

potentially under the control of the speaker. The

perlocutionary act, however, is under the control of

the linguistic or is the causing of a change in the

mind of the listener (ibid:19).Yule,( ibid : 49) ,

and Saeed , (1997: 212 ) are in line with Coulthard

in arguing that one of these three actions-the

illocutionary-is the most discussed which broadly

implies the uses to which language can be put in

society . The term speech act, (Yule, ibid) argues,

is generally interpreted quite narrowly to mean only

the illocutionary force of an utterance. The

illocutionary force of an utterance is what it

counts for. The same locutionary act, as shown in

the following example, can count as a prediction, a

promise, or a warning. These different analyses of

the same utterance represent different illocutionary


(11) a. I will see you later

b. [I predict that] I will see you later.


c. [I promise you that] I will see you

later. (Promising)

d. [I warn you that] I will see you later.


(Yule: ibid).

But the question that arises now: How can speakers assume

that the intended illocutionary force will be recognized

by the speaker?

Such quest has been addressed by considering some

conditions, termed as the felicity conditions by Austin (1975).

He proposes a very general schema to outline the issue:

A1 There must exist an accepted conventional

produce having a certain conventional effect, the produce

to include the uttering of certain words by certain

persons in certain circumstances …

A2 The particular persons and circumstances

must be appropriate for the invention of the particular

produce invoked ….

B1 the produce must be executed by all the participants

correctly …..

B2 …. and completely ….

(Austin, 1975:25-38

as cited in Saeed, ibid: 208-209)

Per se, to fulfill speech acts properlyspecific taxonomy of conditions with the relevantsituation are to be observed. Austin(ibid:11-16)visualizes these conditions, designated as felicityconditions, as follows: The framework of conventionalprocedures with their conventional effects along with

appropriate conditions and persons specified in theseprocedures. He (ibid) maintained that the proceduresshould be correct and complete and the persons involvedhave to have necessary intentions outlined in theprocedure. All should act consequently. Thus, the absenceof one condition will lead to infelicitous act, forexample, Prophet Mohammad PBUH declares in his FarewellSermon:

(12) ... دم, وأدم م�نO ت��رأت� اك�م وأح�د,ك�لكم لا� ب�� كم وأح�د,وأنO أ� �نO رب hاس أ ها أل�ن� ي 12أ�(=Your God is One, and your Father is one. All mankind

is from Adam and Eve…)

This convention is not accepted in a western culture(as

in A1) whereby "God is the third of three"(Quran,5:73).In

contrast, Muslims believe in the Oneness of the

God(Allah)that God is one,unique,incomparable who has no

son no partner.

4. J. R. Searle's SATh

After Austin's theory of speech acts there havebeen a number of works which attempt to systematize theapproach. One important area of emphasis has been tocategorize the types of speech act possible in language.Searle (1976: 10 – 16) proposes that all acts fall intofive main kinds:

1. Representative , which commit the speaker to thetruth of the expressed proposition (paradigmcases :asserting , concluding),for example, in theprophet's Oration:

... عدي ي م�نO ب�� ب� �ئ ه لا اس أع�لموأ أن�� ها أل�ن� ي (13) 13أ�

(= O people, no prophet or apostle will come after me…)

2. Directives, which are attempts by speaker to getthe addressee to do something ( paradigms cases :requesting ),for example, in the Oration:

... عض� اق� ب�� ع�ن� كم أ� عض� رت� ب�� ض� ارأ 14ي� عديX ك�ق� عوأ ب�� لا ت��رج�� (14 )ف��(=So do not retrogress to infidelity, some of you killing the others)

3. Commissives, which commit the speaker to somefuture course of action (paradigm cases: promising,threatening, offering),for example, in the sermon:

كم ... م�وأل�كم ح�رأم ع�لن نO دم�اءك�م وأ� h(15) 15أ (=Regard the life and property of every Muslim…)

4.Expressives , which express a psychological state (paradigm cases : thanking , apologizing , welcoming ,congratulating ),for example, in the sermon

(16 ) ا... هنO ج�ق� ا,وأنO ل�كم ع�لي كم ج�ق� كم ع�لن ساب�� نO ل�ن� hاس,أ ها أل�ن� ي 16أ�(=Do treat your women well be kind to them for theyare your partners and committed helpers.)

كر أل�له اس ل�م ي�س� كر أل�ن� ( 17) 17م�نO ل�م ي�س�(= who does not thank people does not thank Allah)

5.Declarations , which effect immediate change inthe institutionalstate of affairs and which tend to rely on elaborate

extra linguistic institutions ( paradigm cases :excommunicating, declaring war, christening, marrying

(18) Oن اس ي�� ا ع�مي أل�غن� �ه رب دأ ن�� ب�� ا أ� �ول رب وع,وأنO أ� ه م�وض�� اه�لن ل�ح� ا أ� �دأ ل�مظلب�وأنO رب 18.ع�ن�(=Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to Abbas ibn 'Abd'al Muttalib (his uncle) shall henceforth be waived…)

( 19 ) Oن hكم أ ح�اس�ن� ارك�م أ� ن ا م�نO خ�� لاف�� ح�� 19 أ�(= Of the best of you, those who have the best morality )

In distinguishing these acts, Searle(1969:60-68) developed Austin's notion of felicityconditions for a successful performance of speech act.

Searle (1969:67) classifies different version of thefelicity or appropriateness conditions as being(modes) of signifying specific, yet essentialcombination factors to elevate the speech acts tropeto be communicative and farcify tone quality of suchacts to be illocutionary. Searle (ibid) typology of

acts includes : 1 .The preparatory conditions which are related to the

authority of the person who performs the speech acts. For example, the Prophet PBUH said

ا20) ك¬ب�ره�م س�ن� م�هم أ� و� لئ هم س�وأء ف�� �زأءي�� انO ك�ان��ب� ق� ات� أل�له, ف�� ه�م ل�كن� �زو� ق� وم أ� م أل�ق� و� ي� )" "20

=(The one who is more acquainted with the Quran than others should lead the prayer. If their knowledge is

even, the eldest should lead the prayer.) 2 .The sincerity conditions, the speech act is to be

performed sincerely ( no lying whatever is

tolerated). For instance, the Prophet said:(21Oد أل�له م�ن كت�ت� ع�ن� ن ه ف�� لن� ي ي�سود ف�� ه س�ودأء خ�ب� كن� ه ب�� لن� ي ف�� كب� ف� ن� ي ت� ف�� ̧تحري أل�كد� ت� وئ� كد� ل ب� أل أل�زح�� ...وم�ا ت�ر� )"

Oنºي ب�� 21"أل�كاد�=(One keeps lying and a black spot grows in his heart till

all his heart becomes black, then he is written in

Allah sight, among the liars) 3 .Essentiality of conditions related to the commitment of

the speaker concerning the performed speech acts

themselves, for example the Prophet said: (22Oمن ت�� ار م�و� س� أل�مسن� )" "22 =(The consultant is entrusted )

However, in their book, Bolinger and Sears (1981), calledthese

conditions as appropriate to accomplish relevantillocutionary act. They discern that violation ofsuch conditions may lead to inappropriate speechacts. Conditions of locutionary acts have many linksto the form of the speech act, the nature of the

participants and their attitudes, and the setting of

the acts . 5 .Direct and Indirect Speech Acts

Speech acts can be distinguished on the basisof structure. A simple structural distinction betweenthree general types of speech acts is provided by thethree basic sentence types. There is an easily recognizedrelationship between the three structural forms(declarative, interrogative, and imperative) and thethree general communicative functions (statement,question command or request): consider the followingexamples:

(24) You wear a seat belt. (Declarative)

(25) Do you wear a seat belt? (Interrogative)

(26) Wear a seat belt. (Imperative) (Yule, ibid: 54)

When there is a direct relationship between a structure and a function it is a direct speech act.

On the other hand, when there is an indirect

relationship between a structure and a function, it is an

indirect speech act. Hence, a declarative used to make a

statement is a direct speech act. However , a declarative

used to make a request is an indirect speech act , for

example , the utterances in (27)and(28)would be direct

speech acts if they are used to make statements but they

are indirect speech acts in(29) if they are used to make

a command/request. (27) It is cold outside. (Statement)

(28) I herby tell you about the weather. (Statement) (29)

I herby request of you that you close the door.

(ibid: 55)

On this basis, the distinction between direct andindirect speech acts depends on the observation thatthere is quite often a wide discrepancy between what asentence means and what they are meant to tell. Thus, asGeukens (1978: 261) puts it: a speech act is expressedindirectly “when the illocutionary type as indicated bylinguistic means does not correspond with the primarilyintended illocutionary function.”

The question is how listeners can understand or arrive ata definite interpretation of indirect speech acts?Searle, (1975:73-5,cited in Saeed, ibid: 219) suggeststhat we combine our knowledge of three elements: thefelicity conditions of direct speech acts , the contextof the utterance , and the principle of conversationcooperation , such as those provided by Grice'scooperative principle . To show how these three types ofknowledge work out we use the following quoted from theOration to frame Searle's approach:

" ... عض� اق� ب�� ع�ن� كم أ� عض� رت� ب�� ض� ارأ ي� عدي ك�ق� عوأ ب�� لا ت��رج�� (30 )23"ف��(=So do not retrogress to infidelity, some of you killingthe others.)

In their present situation, with the Prophet alive, thecontext tells Muslims that the Prophet should alreadyknow that there would be disturbance after his death andthey will fight or kill each other. Thus, they concludethat the utterance violates the felicity conditions for adeclarative. The assumption of cooperative principle,however, leads Muslims to look for some other point forthe utterance. This is basically the search for an

indirect speech act, i.e., as if Muslims ask themselveswhat is the purpose of this utterance? The Muslims knowthat a condition for warning is that they cannot reallycarry out the act of killing or fighting each other inthe presence of the Prophet (alive). From these threeareas of knowledge Muslims infer that the Prophet'sutterance is likely to be a warning.

6. Grice’s Theory: The Co-operative Principle (CP)

Felicity conditions depend on the assumption that,

in communication, being sincere is a social obligation.

(The sincerity condition; Searle 1969) Such notions of

cooperation, truthfulness, intention, etc. are central

to another development in pragmatics initiated by Grice

(1975, 1978). Instead of proposing rules for successful

communications, Grice prefers to speak of maxims which

participants conventionally adhere to in communication.

Grice’s pragmatic theory proposes that conversation

is usually a co-operative activity and that in all

communication there is a general agreement between the

speaker and the hearer to be called the co-operative

principle. Grice, (1975:45) claims that, at any point

in a conversation, the speaker should be guided by

these principles, in formulating what to say next:

“make your conversational contribution such as is

required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the

accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in

which you are engaged.” (ibid.)

Grundy(2000:73-74) explicates the cooperative

principles(CP) as being very general, as such, he

continued Grice stared a number of sub-maxims that he

considered to be polarized from the CPs. These maxims

specify the conversation which participants in

conversation should and normally do obey. These are as

follows: -

1-Maxim of Quantity (Informativeness)

Make your contribution as informative as is

required (for the current purposes of the

exchange).Do not make your contribution more informative than

is require (31) ه صرف�� ل م�ن� ن� ف� ال ل�م ب� لوت� أل�زح�� ه ف�� ي ن�� ب� سئ� علم صرف� أل�كلام ل�ن 24 ع�دلا ا ولام�نO ب��

(= nothing will be accepted from anyone who learnsunnecessary, words to capture men’s hearts).

د ( 32) ن�ب�ل�ق� و رأ� نO أمرت� أ� رأ� ب وأر� ه�و خ� انO أل�ج� ول ف�� ي أل�ق� ور� ف� ج� 25 أي��(= I was ordered to be brief because brevity is good)

2. Maxim of Quality (Truthfulness).

Try to make your contribution one that is true,


Do not say what you believe to be false.

Do not say that for which you lack adequate


حدت� (33) ال رس�ول أل�له )ض( ك�ب�رت� ك�لمه� أنO ي�� اك�Çف�� ح�� ه م�ضدق� أ� ا ه�و ل�كÇ ن�� ن� ئ¬ ن��ب� ح�د هوأ� ن��ت� . 26ك�اد�

(= The greatest treason is to tell [your brother] a

lie while he has confidence [believes] in you).

3-Maxim of Relation (Relevance)

Make your contribution relevant.

Be relevantأ (34) د� hح�دك�م ع�طس أ وة أ� مئ� س� لا ي�� حمدX أل�له ف�� انO ل�م ي� وة ف�� مئ� س� حمد أل�له ف�� 27 ف��

(=If one [of you] sneezes he should say alhamdulilah[thanks be Allah] then you should say “may Allahgrant you His mercy [ bestow his mercy on you]. If hedidn’t, you are not to ask Allah to grant him yourmercy.)

4-Maxim of Manner (Clarity)

Be perspicuous, and specifically:

Avoid obscurity of expression.

Avoid ambiguity.

Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity.

Be orderly. (ibid(

ا (35) لق� ت� خ� ظاوع�ا ولا ي�� ف�رأ وي�� ن� رأ ولا ئ�¸ غشرأ وي��ش� 28ي�شرأ ولا ب��(= Facilitate issues [to people] and do not harden

things for them, and give people good tidings, and

do not make them go astray [or run away]. Be

obedient with each other and do not be controversial


Taken together the maxims could be summed up as how

to be maximally effective and efficient in

communication. Or as Levinson (1983:102) puts it:

“specify what participants have to do in order to

converse in a maximally efficient, rational co-

operative way: they should speak sincerely,

relevantly and clearly, while providing sufficient


These maxims are not scientific laws that govern

the act of communication. They are conventions that can

be deliberately violated in order to mislead, and they

can also be deliberately and blatantly flouted. Someone

who lies, for example, is violating a sub- maxim of

quality. In violation, the hearer can recognize an

apparent failure to conform to the CP. for example:

(24) What lovely weather we’re having.

If this sentence is said on a dreadful day, then it

quite obviously violates a maxim of quality. In such

cases, the hearer can assume a general intention to

conform to the CP, and use a conversational implicature to

work out what is meant for what is said, and hence to

discover its ironic intent (Garnham, 1985:107).

In Thomas’s (1995:56) words, Grice’s theory is “an

attempt at explaining how a hearer gets from what is

said to what is meant, from the level of expressed to

the level of implied meaning.”

To put it in another way, the conversational

implicature is a message that is not found in the plain

sense of the sentence. The speaker implies it, whereas

the hearer is able to infer this message in the

utterance, by appealing to the rules governing

successful communications.

The term conversational implicature was introduced by

Grice (1975) to indicate how hearers manage to work out

the complete message when speakers mean more than they


The concept of implicature is related to the

traditional notion that one can say something and mean

something else as in irony, metaphor, and double

entendre. Thus, Fowler (1986:106) defines implicature

as “what is said between the lines”. Both Kempson

(1977:43) and Yule (1985:111) treat implicature as an

extra conveyed meaning.

Crystal (1997:153) defines implicature as “the

implication that can be deduced form the form of an

utterance, on the basis of certain co-operative

principles which govern the efficiency and normal

acceptability of conversation”. This is to say that

meaning is conveyed through an utterance rather than

from the meaning of the words in an utterance.”

Grice (1975:57-58) distinguishes two types of

implicature: conventional and conversational. They

share together the property that they both convey an

additional level of meaning, beyond the semantic

meaning of the words uttered. As for the difference in

the case of conventional implicature, Thomas (1995:57)

states that the same implicature is always conveyed,

away from context, where as in the case of

conversational implicature, what is implied varies

according to the context of utterance.

ها (36) ي اس أنO دم�اءك�م أ� م�وأل�كم أل�ن� كم ح�رأم وأ� لي ع�لن hأ وك�حرمه�أ وم�كم ه�د� كم ك�حرمه� ي� �وأ رب لق� أنO ب��أ هرك�م ه�د� 29ش��

On this basis, Levinson (1983:127) states that

“conventional implicatures are non-truth- conventional

inferences that are not derived from superordinate

pragmatic principles like the maxims, but are simply

attached by convention to particular lexical items or


(37) كم ب�� كم وأ� �ونO رب لق� ن� �XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXل�كم س سXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXا� ي ت� ف�� لغ� د ب�� ��XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXأع�ملكم وف O30 ع�نIn contrast, conversational implicature refers to the

implications, which can be deduced from the form of an

utterance, on the basis of certain co-operative

principles, which govern the efficiency, and normal

acceptability of conversations.Crystal,1997:153).

Consider the following example:

نO ك�ف�روأ (38) ي7 ه أل�د� ل ن�� ض� ي أل�كف�ر ي� ادة� ف� ب ء ر� سي 31أنO أل�ن�Which is taken to mean (you ought to avoid).

Yule (1996:41-42) maintains that conversational

implicatures can further be divided into two classes:

particularized and generalized. The former are

crucially dependent not only on the content of the

utterance and the co-operative principle, but also on

the context of the utterance. The latter, do not

require special knowledge in the context to calculate

the additional conveyed meaning.

In conclusion, Grice (1975) seems to be saying that

those extra meanings that crop up in certain utterances

are due not to the syntactic or semantic rules of

languages, but to rules and principles of conversation.


The felicity conditions of an illocutionary

act are said to be the appropriate and happy conditions

fulfilled in a given situation in which the act is

carried out if the said act is to be said to be carried

out appropriately and properly. In his sermon PBUH, a

number of illocutionary acts of promising , greeting ,

etc were performed through providing a set of felicity

conditions attributed to the faithfulness of the oration

itself. Being a messenger of Allah (most exhulted) he

intended to assure the fulfillment of things he promised

i.e. if morally right the paradise will be the prize,

otherwise morally wrong should be corrected, otherwise

be doomed. Any suffering of the believers will be

compensated. Being named, his sermon intended to guide

Muslims to recognize specific cases to engrave a no-one-

zone between right and wrong. His identification of AL

Abass held in considerable respect by community

envisaged the protesting act against usury. He

disapproved the state of affairs protested at by

repeating and outlining that "Allah is the most

merciful; yet the greatest Avinger.

By saying (هد ت� ،أل�لهم أش�� لغ� لا ه�ل ب�� he satisfied the (أ�notion of truth-conditions, approved by the utterance he

expressed to be wholly true. As the case with tribal

communications, he confirmed that "women" should be

treated righteously applying moral everyday criteria of

Arab man – woman relationship (being felicitous). On a

variety of cases, he PBUH confirms that sincerity is "

soul and belief". As such his acts recognized within

appropriate conditions, must be fulfilled by the hearer

sincerely, otherwise failure to follow such spot marks

and their conditions might lead to other results

(tactless and sacrilegious).

Being direct, sincere, and fatherly no

complicated systemic way is needed to tell the kind of

act his utterance performs. In the highest degree of

reliability stemmed from previous as well current

felicitous conditions, the hearers managed to comprehend

what illocutionary acts are fulfilled. Interpretability

and accessibility of the illocutionary of his utterances

are directly medicated by the conceptual meaning of the

grammatical categories used and lexicon incorporated. In

his hadith 32( Oن ي حXXXXXXXXر مXXXXXXXXرب�� م�نO م�نO ج�� لXXXXXXXXدع� أل�مXXXXXXXXو� (لا ب� for instances, theindirect illocution of the utterance can be comprehended

within the context of situation. To elaborate the direct

illocution of the hadith is a non – assertive expression

referring to the believer's intuition and the serpent's

behavior. Indirect illocution, however, is a [request]

to be careful and deduce lessons of back – experience.

Depending on the various categories of

illocutionary acts classified in accordance to the

interaction emitted, the directive illocutionary act of

the sermon involves the prophet PBUH as speaker to get

the audience behave in specific ways. To say (هد ��XXXXأل�لهم أش)Muhammad PBUH performs an illocutionary act of

commission essentially by committing himself to behave

in some required manner. Further, as we have seen, the

idea of felicity conditions is central to cooperative

principle. In their talks, we assume that people are

informative, truthful, relevant, and clear in order to

interpret what they say. However, these maxims are not

usually observed very strictly; yet there have been a

call for observing maxims of cooperation in his

hadiths(6).Consequently, illocutionary acts of his

oration (PBUH)were performed through obeying these

maxims due to the faithfulness and truthfulness of the

prophet being a messenger of Allah. Hence, in religious

contexts, both speaker and listener, are likeliest to be

cooperative, a situation where is rarely observed in

other contexts due to the various pragmatic reasons in

which interlocutors are constrained to violate these



1. Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith 1623, 1626, 6361, Sahih Muslim alsorefers to this sermon in Hadith number 98, Al- Tirmidhi, Hadith 1628, 2046, 2085,Musnad ibin Hanbal, Hadith 19774

2. The Farewell Sermon (ه� أل�ودأع طن� Khuṭbatu l-Wadā), the Prophet's Final ,خ��

Sermon or The Last Sermon, was delivered by Muhammad

Peace Be Upon Him on 9 Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 AH (632) in

the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat (in Mecca, seventy-two

days before his death, at the end of his final

pilgrimage The Farewell Sermon is mentioned in almost

all books of Hadith. Sahih Al-Bukhari refers to the

sermon, and quotes part of it. ibn Hanbal gave the

longest version of this sermon in his Musnad.

3. Appendix A, B4. =

5. =

6. =

7. =

8. =

9. =

10. =

11. =

12. =

13. =

14. =

15. =

16. =

17. Tirmidhi, Ch. Albir

18. Appendix A, a & B, b

19. Muslim (6033)

20. Muslim (1532)

21. Muslim (6805)

22. Tirmidhi (2822)

23. Appendix A, a & B, b

24. 24.Abee Dawood (5008)

25. Muslim (6113)

26. Muslim (6033)

27. Muslim (7488)

28. 28 Muslim (4626)

29. Appendix A,B

30. =

31. =

32. 32.Muslim (7690)

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Crystal, David (1997). A Dictionary of Linguistics andPhonetics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Finch, L. (2000). Linguistic Terms and Concepts. London:Macmillan Press Ltd.

Fowler, R. (1986). Linguistic Criticism. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.

Garnham, Alan (1985). Psycholinguistics. London :Methuen.

Geukens, Steven K. J.(1978). The Distinction betweenDirect and Indirect Speech Acts: Towards ASurface Approach, In: Journal of Pragmatics (2)261-276. North-Holland Publishing Company.

Grice, H.P. (1975): “Logic and Conversation”. In: Cole and Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics.Vol.3.New York: Academic Press.

………… (1978). “Further Notes on Logic and Conversation”.In: Cole and Morgan (eds.), Syntax and Semantics.Vol.9.NewYork: Academic Press.

Grundy, Peter (2000). Doing Pragmatics. London: Arnold .

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Leech, G.(1983). The Principles of Pragmatics. London:Longman Group Ltd.

Levinson, Stephen (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.

Lyons, John (1977). Semantics. Vol.II Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.

Niazi, Nozar (2004). Novel and Interpretation. APragmatic Approach. Usha Manor: Forum for CultureStudies.

Palmer, (1981) Semantics ---

Saeed, John (1997). Semantics. Oxford: BlackwellPublishers Ltd.

Searle, John (1969). Speech Acts: An Essay in thePhilosophy of Language. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.

Thomas, Jenny (1995). Meaning in Interaction: anIntroduction to Pragmatics. London: LongmanGroup Ltd.

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The Holy Qur-'An. English translation of the meanings andcommentary (1980). King Fahd Holy Qur-'an printingComplex




Appendix A

هدة أل�له ا م�نO ي� ع�مال�ن� ات� أ� ن� ا وم�نO س�ئ سن� ف� ب�� رور أ� ال�له م�نO ش� عود� ب�� ه، وب�� ل�ن hوت� أ ئ� Þف�رة وئ ع� سن� ه وي�� ن� عي سن� حمدة وي�� أل�حمد ل�له ي��دة نO م�حمدًأ ع�ن� هد أ� ش�� كÇ له وأ� ب7 ر لا أل�له وح�دة لا ش� hله أ hلا أ Oن هد أ� ش�� لا ه�ادي له، وأ� لل ف�� ض� ل له وم�نO ي� لا م�ض� ف��

ي اس أس�معوأ م�ب� ها أل�ن� ي عد أ� م�ا ب�� ر. أ� ب ي ه�و خ� ال�د� ح ب�� ت� ف� س�ن� ه وأ� كم ع�لي ط�اع�ن� خ�ت� وي أل�له وأ� ق� ن� اد أل�له ئ�� كم ع�ن� وص�ن ورس�وله. أ�كم ح�رأم ع�رأض�� نO دم�اءك�م وأ� hاس أ ها أل�ن� ي أ. أ� ي ه�د� ف� ي م�وق�� أ ف� عدX ع�امي ه�د� اك�م ب�� ل�ق� دري ل�عليX لا أ� �ي لا أ� ن hا يºنO ل�كم ف�� ب�� أ�

هد، ف��منO ك�ان��ب� اش�� ت� أل�لهم ف�� لغ� لا ه�ل ب�� أ – أ� لدك�م ه�د� ي ب�� أ ف� هرك�م ه�د� ي ش�� أ ف� وم�كم ه�د� كم ك�حرمه� ي� �وأ رب لق� نO ب�� لي أ� hكم أ ع�لنلمونO ولا sظ م�وأل�كم لا ي�� وس أ� وع ول�كنO ل�كم رو� ه� م�وض�� اه�لن ا أل�ح� �نO رب hها. وأ ه ع�لي ت�من� لي م�نO أئ�� hده�ا أ و� لئ ه� ف�� م�ان�� دة أ� ع�ن�

، وعه� ه� م�وض�� اه�لن نO دم�اء أل�ح� hوأ . د أل�مظلب� نO ع�ن� اس ي�� ه ع�مي أل�غن� دأ� ن�� ب�� ا أ� �ول رب نO أ� hا. وأ �ه لا رب ن�� ي أل�له أ� ض� لمونO وق�� sظ ي��

ه� بر أل�سدأن�� وعه� ع� ه� م�وض�� اه�لن ت�7ر أل�ح� نO م�ا� hد أل�مظلب� وأ نO ع�ن� نO أل�حارت� ي�� عه� ي�� ن نO رئ�� ه دم ع�امر ي�� دأ� ن�� ن� ول دم ئ�� نO أ� hوألا ه�ل ه� – أ� اه�لن ه�ل أل�ح� هو م�نO أ� أد ف�� ر، ف��منO ر� عب ه� ب�� ه م�ان�� ن ال�عضا وأل�حح�ر وف�� ل ب�� ت� ه أل�عمد م�ا ف�� ن� ود وس�� ه� وأل�عمد ق� ان� وأل�سق�

ظاع نO ي� ي أ� د رض� ه ف�� ة، ول�كن� كم ه�د� رض�� ي أ� د ف� غن� نO ب� س أ� ن� د ب� ظانO ف�� ي نO أل�س� hاس أ ها أل�ن� ي عد أ� م�ا ب�� هد. أ� اش�� ت� أل�لهم ف�� لغ� ب��ه ل ن�� ض� ي أل�كف�ر ي� ادة� ف� ب سي� ر� ما أل�ن� ت�� hاس أ ها أل�ن� ي كم، أ� ن� روة ع�لي دئ� اح�د� ع�مال�كم ف�� ونO م�نO أ� حرق� ل�كÇ م�ما ي�� ما س�وي د� ت ف��Oن hح�ل أل�له. وأ حرم�وأ م�ا أ� حلوأ م�ا ح�رم أل�له وي ت وأ ع�دة� م�ا ح�رم أل�له ف�� وط�ئ� ه ع�ام�ًا ل�ئ حرم�ون�� ه ع�ام�ًا وي حلون�� نO ك�ف�روأ ي� ي7 أل�د�

ات� ي ك�ن� هرًأ ف� ر ش�� ا ع�ش� ن� ئ�7 د أل�له أ هور ع�ن� نO ع�دة� أل�ش� hوأ ، رض� لق� أل�له أل�سماوأت� وألا� وم ح�� ه ي� ن� ئ} دأر ك�هن د أس�ن� م�انO ف�� أل�ز�ه� و أل�حج� عدة� ود� و أل�ق� �زد: د� ات� ووأح�د ق� وأل�ن ه� م�ئ� �لان عه� ح�رم ب�� �رب ها أ� ، م�ي� رض� لق� أل�له أل�سماوأت� وألا� وم ح�� أل�له ي�

كم ساب�� نO ل�ن� hاس أ ها أل�ن� ي عد أ� م�ا ب�� هد. أ� اش�� ت� أل�لهم ف�� لغ� لا ه�ل ب�� انO – أ� غن� مادي وس�� يºنO ج�� ي ب�� ر أل�د� ت� م�ض� وأل�محرم ورخ��Oن ي ب�� ا� كم ولا ب� �ب د� öا لا ب�� hكم أ وب�� ئ ه ئ�� كره�ون�� ح�دًأ ب�� لنO أ� دح�� رك�م، ولا ب� ب هم ع� �زش�� نO ق� وأط�ئ� نO لا ي� . ل�كم أ� هنO ح�ق� ًا ول�كم ع�لي كم ج�ق� ع�لنر مب�رح، ب ًا ع� ب�7 ر وه�نO ص� �ري ض� ع وي�� اج�� ي أل�مض� هح�روه�نO ف� لوه�نO وي�� عض� نO ب�� نO ل�كم أ� د� د أ� نO أل�له ف�� hا علنO ف�� نO ق�� hا ، ف�� ه� اخ�ش� ق� ب��

دك�م عوأنO لا هنO ع�ن� ي�� hا رًأ، ف�� ب ساء خ� ال�ن� وض�وأ ب�� ، وأس�ئ� ال�معروف� هنO ب�� هنO وك�سوي�� ف�� كم رر� علن كم ق�� ط�غن� نO وأ� هي ي� Þأئ� Oن hا ف��ساء ي أل�ن� وأ أل�له ف� ق� اب�� كلمه� أل�له ف�� هنO ب�� �زوج�� م ق� ه� أل�له وأس�̧تحللت� م�ان�� ا� موه�نO ب�� ت�� د� ح�� ما أ� ت�� hكم أ ب�� hًا، وأ ن� ئ شهنO س�� ف� ب�� ملكنO لا� ت�

حل لامري� م�ال وة� ولا ي� ح�� hأ Oون م�ئ� ما أل�مو� ت�� hاس أ ها أل�ن� ي هد. أ� اش�� ....أل�لهم ف�� ت� لغ� لا ه�ل ب�� رًأ – أ� ب هنO خ� وض�وأ ي�� وأس�ئ�هد. اش�� ت� أل�لهم ف�� لغ� لا ه�ل ب�� ه – أ� س م�ن� ف� ت� ب�� لا ع�نO ط�ت hه أ ن خ�� لا�

ات� عدة: ك�ن� لوأ ب�� ض� ه لنO ي�� م ن�� ت�� د� ح�� نO أ� hكم م�ا أ ن د ت��رك�ب� ف�� �ي ف�� ن hا ، ف�� عض� ات� ب�� كم رف�� عض� رت� ب�� ض� �زًأ ي� عدي ك�اق� غنO ب�� لا ت��رج�� ف��Oدم م�ن دم وأ� اك�م وأح�د ك�لكم لا� ب�� نO أ� hكم وأح�د وأ �نO رب hاس أ ها أل�ن� ي هد. أ� اش�� ت� ... أل�لهم ف�� لغ� لا ه�ل ب�� ه، أ� ن ئ� ة� ب�� أل�له وس�ن�ال�وأ هد ف�� اش�� ....أل�لهم ف�� ت� لغ� لا ه�ل ب�� وي – أ� ق� ال�ن� لا ب�� hل أ ض� مي ق�� ي ع�لي ع�ح� �ن س ل�عر اك�م، ول�ن ق� د أل�له أب�� ك�زم�كم ع�ن� ت��رأت� أ�

ور� ج� ه م�نO أل�مبرأت� ولا ي� ن� ºضئ سم ل�كل وأرت� ي�� د ف�� نO أل�له ف�� hاس أ ها أل�ن� ي . أ� ان��ب� اه�د أل�ع� لع�X أل�س� ن� ºلئ ال ف�� عم – ف�� ب��ولي و ي�� ه أ� ن ئ�7 ر أ� ب لي ع� hأدع�ي أ Oوأل�ول�د ل�لف�رأس� ول�لعاه�ر أل�حح�ر. م�ن ، لب� ك¬ب�ر م�نO ب�� ي أ� ه� ف� ور� وص�ن ج� ، ولا ي� ه� ل�وأرت� وص�ن

كم ه صرف� ولا ع�دل. وأل�سلام ع�لن ل م�ن� ن� ف� نO لا ب� معئ ج�� اس أ� كه� وأل�ن� ة� أل�له وأل�ملاب�� ه ل�غن� علن ه ق�� ر م�وأل�ن ب ع�

Appendix a

After praising, andthanking God he said: "O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I know

not whether after this year, I shall ever beamongst you again. Therefore listen to what I amsaying to you very carefully and TAKE THESE WORDSTO THOSE WHO COULD NOT BE PRESENT HERE TODAY. O People, just as you regard this month,this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the lifeand property of every Muslim as a sacred trust.Return the goods entrusted to you to theirrightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one mayhurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet yourLord, and that HE will indeed reckon your deeds.Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest),therefore all interest obligation shall henceforthbe waived. Your capital, however, is yours tokeep. You will neither inflict nor suffer anyinequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be nointerest and that all the interest due to Abbasibn 'Abd'alMuttalib (his uncle) shall henceforthbe waived... Beware of Satan, for the safety ofyour religion. He has lost all hope that he willever be able to lead you astray in big things, sobeware of following him in small things. O People, it is true that you have certainrights with regard to your women, but they alsohave rights over you. Remember that you have takenthem as your wives only under Allah's trust andwith His permission. If they abide by your rightthen to them belongs the right to be fed andclothed in kindness. Do treat your women well andbe kind to them for they are your partners andcommitted helpers. And it is your right that theydo not make friends with any one of whom you donot approve, as well as never to be unchaste. O People, listen to me in earnest,worship Allah, say your five daily prayers(Salah), fast during the month of Ramadan, andgive your wealth in Zakat. Perform Hajj if you canafford to. All mankind is from Adam and Eve, anArab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also awhite has no superiority over black nor a blackhas any superiority over white except by piety and

good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brotherto every Muslim and that the Muslims constituteone brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to aMuslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless itwas given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore,do injustice to yourselves. Remember, one day youwill appear before Allah and answer your deeds. Sobeware, do not stray from the path ofrighteousness after I am gone. O People, NOPROPHET OR APOSTLE WILL COME AFTER ME AND NO NEWFAITH WILL BE BORN. Reason well, therefore, OPeople, and understand words which I convey toyou. I leave behind me two things, the Qur'an andmy example, the Sunnah and if you follow these youwill never go astray. All those who listen to meshall pass on my words to others and those toothers again; and may the last ones understand mywords better than those who listen to me directly.Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed yourmessage to your people". When he finished hisfarewell speech, the following revelations come tohim, the final verse of the Qur'an. "...This day, I have perfected your religion foryou, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosenfor you Islam as your religion..." (Quran 5:3).Soon after this sermon, his last in the mosque,Muhammad (pbuh) became so weak that he could notmove. He then appointed Abu Bakr (ra), his right-hand man, to lead the prayers. He spent the restof his illness in the apartment of his belovedwife A'ishah (ra). On the early morning of twelfthof Rabi' al-Awwal, three months after, theprophet? s fever abated and he went to the mosquewith assistance. He sat on the right of Abu Bakrand completed the prayer while seated. Hourslater, he lost consciousness. His last words were"My Lord, grant me pardon" though some sources say"The prayer! The prayer!" and some say he tried tomake some motion, as if to write something. Thereis also a hadith narrated by his wife, Ayesha,where she heard him tell the angel that he'drather die and meet God than stay on Earth. He

died in the evening of the twelfth of Rabi' al-Awwal (June 8, 632 C.E.) at the age of sixty-three, in the arms of his wife Ayesha. The news ofthe Muhammad's death was so hard upon closecompanions and Muslims that some of them refusedto believe that he had passed away. (At the closeof his death, he looked youthful as if in hisforties and his face always shown a greatradiance). Upon hearing this, Abu Bakr (ra).whowas later to become the first caliph, went to themosque and delivered one of the noblest speeches:"O People! If Muhammad is the sole object of youradoration, then know that he is dead. But if it isAllah (The One God) you Worshiped, then know thatHe does not die." He then recited the followingverse from the Qur'an, 3:144, which was revealedafter the Battle of Uhud: "Muhammad is no morethan a Messenger: many were the Messengers thatpassed away before him. If he died or were slain,will you then turn back on your heels? If any didturn back on his heels, not the least harm will hedo to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) willswiftly reward those who (serve Him) withgratitude." The Prophet was buried the next dayat the same place where he died. The place of hisburial was decided by his saying as related by AbuBakr (ra): "Allah does not cause a prophet to diebut in the place where he is to be buried." www.Islamicity.com

Appendix B

س�حاق� : hأ Oن ال أي�� ه� أل�ودأع ف�� ي ج�ج� ه وس�لم ف� ه� أل�زس�ول ض�لي أل�له ع�لن طن� خ��اس �XXطت� أل�ن هم وخ�� ي�نO ج�ج� �XXع�لمهم س كهم وأ� �XXاس اس م�ن� �XXري أل�ن ا� ��XXه ف �XXلم ع�لي ج�ج �XXه وس XXه ع�لنXXلي أل�ل �XXه ضXXول أل�ل �XXي رس �XXم م�ض ت��

ال ��Xم ف ه ت�� Xي ع�لن Þب �Xئ حمXد أل�لXه وأ� يºنO ف�� ا ب�� �Xا مXه ي يºنO ف�� ي ب�� ب� �Xه أل �Xن ظي� اك�م" :خ�� �Xل�ق دري ل�عليX لا أ� �ي لا أ� ن hا ��X، ف ولي �Xمعوأ ق �Xاس أس �Xا أل�نXه ي أ�وم�كم �Xه� يXكم ك�حرم �وأ رب �XXلق نO ب�� لي أ� hرأم أ�XXكم ح وأل�كم ع�لن �Xم اءك�م وأ� �Xدم Oن hاس أ �Xا أل�نXه ي دأ ، أ� ب�� ف� أ� أ أل�موق�� هد� أ ي�� عد ع�امي ه�د� ب��لي hا أ �XXده و� لئ ه� ف�� م�ان�� دة أ� ت� ، ف��منO ك�انO ع�ن� لغ� د ب�� ع�مال�كم وف�� ل�كم ع�نO أ� سا� ي كم ف�� �ونO رب لق� كم س�ن� ب�� hأ ، وأ هرك�م ه�د� أ ، وك�حرمه� ش�� ه�د�ا ، �Xه لا رب ��Xن ي أل�لXه أ� �Xض لمXXونO . ق�� sظ لمXXونO ولا ي�� sظ وأل�كم لا ي�� �Xم وع ول�كنO ل�كم رءوس أ� ��XXا م�وض �Xك�ل رب Oن hها ، وأ ه ع�لي ت�من� م�نO أئ��ع دم ��Xض كم أ� اب�� �Xول دم نO أ� hوع وأ ��Xه� م�وض Xاه�لن ي أل�ح� نO ك�Xل دم ك�XانO ف� وع ك�له وأ� د أل�مظلب� م�وض�� نO ع�ن� اس ي�� ا ع�ن� �نO رب hوأاء �Xدم Oه م�ن ��Xدأ� ن ��Xب ا أ� �Xول م هXو أ� ل ف�� ب د� �Xه ه �XXلن ن� ف� ت� ق�� ي ل�ت ب� ��Xئ ي عا ف� ��XXم�شب�رض Oان �Xد أل�مظلب� ، وك �Xع�ن Oن نO أل�حXارت� ي�� عXه� ي�� ن أي��نO رئ��وي �XXا سXXم ت طXXع ف�� نO ي� hه أ �XXدأ، ول�كن ��XXب ة أ� د� �XXكم ه ��XXرض ا� د ب�� �XXغن نO ب� س م�نO أ� ن� د ب� ��XXف Oظان ي �XXأل�س Oن hا ��XXاس ف �XXا أل�نXXه ي عXXدX أ� ا ب�� �XXم ه� . أ� XXاه�لن أل�ح�ه ��XXل ن �XXض ر ي� �XXأل�كف ي ادة� ف� XXب ء ر� سXXي نO أل�ن� hاس أ �XXا أل�نXXه ي كم أ� ن� روة ع�لي دئ� د� �XXاح ع�مXXال�كم ف�� رونO م�نO أ� �XXجف مXXا ي�� ه ت�� ��XXن ي �XXد رض �XXق كÇ ق�� �XXل د�

ح�Xل أل�له ا أ� �Xوأ م �Xحرم ا ح�Xرم أل�لXه وي �Xوأ مXحل ت ا ح�Xرم أل�لXه ف�� �Xدة� م �Xوأ ع �Xوأط�ئ ا ، ل�ئ �Xه ع�ام ��Xحرم�ون ا وي �Xه ع�ام ��Xحلون نO ك�ف�روأ ، ي� ي7 نO .أل�د� hأعXه� �رب هXا أ� هرأ ، م�ي� ��Xر ش �Xا ع�ش �Xن ئ�7 د أل�لXه أ �Xهور ع�ن �Xع�دة� أل�ش Oن hرض� وأ لق� أل�له أل�سموأت� وألا� وم ح�� ه ي� ن� ئ} دأر ك�هن د أس�ن� م�انO ف�� أل�ز�ا ، �XXكم ج�ق سXXاب�� نO ل�كم ع�لي ي�� hا ��XXاس ، ف �XXا أل�نXXه ي عXXد أ� ا ب�� �XXم انO . أ� غن� ��XXادي وسXXم يºنO ج�� ي ب�� د� �XXر ، أل �XXت� م�ض ه� ورخ�� XXوأل�ن ه� م�ئ� �XXلان رم ب�� �XXح

Oن hا ��Xف Oعلن نO ق�� hا ��Xة� ف �Xن ºئ ه� م�ن� �Xاخ�ش ق� نO ب�� ي ب�� ا� نO لا ب� هنO أ� ه وع�لي كره�ون�� ح�دأ ب�� كم أ� �زس�� نO ق� وط�ئ� نO لا ي� هنO أ� ا ، ل�كم ع�لي كم ج�ق� ول�هنO ع�لنOهن هنO وك�سXXXوي�� ف�� لهنO رر� نO ف�� هي ي� Þأئ� Oن hا ��XXXXب�رح فXXXر م ب �XXXا ع ب�7 ر �XXXص Oوه�ن �ري �XXXXض ع وي�� اج�� �XXXأل�مض ي روه�نO ف� �XXXXهح نO ي�� نO ل�كم أ� د� د أ� ��XXXXه فXXXأل�ل

ه� ��XXم�ان ا� موه�نO ب�� ت�� د� ��XXح مXXا أ� ت�� hكم أ ب�� hا ، وأ ن� ئ ��XXس OهنXXش ف� ب�� ملكنO لا� دك�م عXXوأنO لا ت� �XXع�ن Oهن ي�� hا ��XXرأ ، ف ب �XXاء خXXس ال�ن� وأ ب�� �XXوض ال�معروف� وأس�ئ� ��XXب

م صXمت� نO أع�ي� hا أ �Xكم م ن رك�ب� ف�� ��Xد ت ت� ، وف�� لغ� د ب�� �ي ف�� ن hا ولي ، ف�� اس ق� ها أل�ن� ي لوأ أ� اع�ق� كلمات� أل�له ف�� هنO ب�� �زوج�� م ق� أل�له وأس�̧تحللت�ح� نO ك�Xل م�سXلم أ� علمنOX أ� لXوة ب�� ولي وأع�ق� �Xمعوأ ق �Xاس أس �Xا أل�نXه ي ه . أ� Xن ئ� ة� ب�� ن� �Xه وسXات� أل�ل �Xا ، ك�ن �Xن ºئ مXرأ ب�� دأ ، أ� ��Xب لوأ أ� ض� لنO ي�� ه ف�� ن��

سXXكم أل�لهم ف� ب�� لمنO أ� sظ لا ي�� ه ف�� �XXس م�ن ف� ت� ب�� ع�ظXXاة ع�نO ط�ت ا أ� �XXلا م hه أ XXن خ�� حXXل لامXXري� م�نO أ� لا ي� وة� ف�� ��XXح hأ Oن نO أل�مسXXلمي ل�لمسXXلم وأ�

هد ه وس�لم أل�لهم أش�� ال رس�ول أل�له ض�لي أل�له ع�لن ق� عم ق�� ال�وأ : أل�لهم ب�� اس ف�� نO أل�ن� ك�ز لي أ� Þد ت� ؟ ف�� لغ� "ه�ل ب�� ".

Appendix b


O People, lend me an attentive ear, for I don't knowwhether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst youagain. Therefore listen to what I am saying to youcarefully and TAKE THES WORDS TO THOSE WHO COULD NOT BEPRESENT HERE TODAY. “O People, just as you regard thismonth, this day, this city as Sacred, so regard the life

and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Returnthe goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurtno one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that youwill indeed meet your LORD, and that HE will indeedreckon your deeds. ALLAH has forbidden you to take usury(Interest), therefore all interest obligation shallhenceforth be waived... Beware of Satan, for your safetyof your religion. He has lost all hope that he will everbe able to lead you astray in big things, so beware offollowing him in small things. “O People, it is true thatyou have certain rights with regard to your women, butthey also have right over you. If they abide by yourright then to them belongs the right to be fed andclothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kindto them for they are your partners and committed helpers.And it is your right that they do not make friends withany one of whom you do not approve, as well as never tocommit adultery. “O People, listen to me in earnest,worship ALLAH, Perform your five daily prayers (Salah),fast during the month of Ramadhan, and give your wealthin Zakat. Perform Hajj if you can afford to. You knowthat every Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. YOUARE ALL EQUAL. NOBODY HAS SUPERIORITY OVER OTHER EXCEPTBY PIETY AND GOOD ACTION. Remember, one day you willappear before ALLAH and answer for your deeds. So beware,do not astray from the path of righteousness after I amgone. O People, NO PROPHET OR APOSTLE WILL COME AFTER MEAND NO NEW FAITH WILL BE BORN. Reason well, therefore, OPeople, and understand my words which I convey to you. Ileave behind me two things, the QUR'AN and my example,the SUNNAH and if you follow these you will never goastray. All those who listen to me shall pass on my wordsto others and those to others again; and may the lastones understand my words better than those who listen tome directly. BE MY WITNESS O ALLAH THAT I HAVE CONVEYEDYOUR MESSAGE TO YOUR PEOPLE www.Khutaba.com

Instructor Juma'a Q. Hussein

Dept. of English

College of Education for Humanities Univ. of Anbar\ Ramadi-Iraq

[email protected]