Submitted to Mr. GP Sharma
3EXECUTIVE SUMMARYLeather and Leather Products sector is one of the important sectors among the variousconstituents of the manufacturing sector in India, mainly due to its contribution towardsemployment. It is one of the unique sectors which have the advantage of the both valueaddition and export potential. It also contributes significantly to total manufacturing outputand exports from the country.
Leather industry has massive potential for employment, output growth and export. The sectoris one of the top eight foreign exchange earners worth over Rs. 10000 crores per annum andaccounts for 3% of the global leather-related trade of Rs. 387200 crores. An estimated 15%of total purchase of leading global brands in footwear, garments, leather goods &accessories in Europe, and 10 percent of global supply is outsourced from India. Leatherindustry has undergone dramatic transformation in the recent years from a mere exporter ofraw materials in the sixties to that of value added finished products in the nineties.The Indian leather industry comprises of both organized and unorganized and organizedsectors. The organised manufacturing sector broadly consists of tanning and dressing ofleather manufacture of luggage, handbags saddlery, harness and footwear. Currentlyunorganized sector plays a dominant role in the entire production. The small scale, cottageand artisan sectors account for over 75 per cent of the total production and majority of thembelong to unorganized sector. Though footwear is produced by both large and small scalesector, the small scale sector has almost 90 per cent share in the total production of footwearin India.
4Indias leather and leather products exports have been growing at 6.80% per annum during1991-92 to 2007-08. Major export destinations are Germany, USA, UK, Italy and HongKong. Indias exports of finished leather have been growing at the rate of 6.42% during1993-94 to 2007-08. Hong Kong is one of the major export destinations of finished leatherproducts. Hong Kong cornered the largest share (42%) of Indias finished leather export in2007-08.Leather Footwear: Indias exports of leather footwear have been growing at the annual rateof 3.50% during 1991-92 to 2007-08. The leading importer of Indian leather footwear is UKfollowed by Germany, USA, Italy, etc.
Leather Goods: Indias exports of leather goods have been decreasing at the rate of 2% perannum during 1991-92 to 2007-08 period. Germanys position as the major destination ofIndias leather goods exports during the early 90s has changed drastically. UK, Spain,Netherlands, Australia, UAE and Belgium have all increased their imports from India.
Leather Garments: Leather garments exports from India have been decreasing at the annualrate of 2.46% during 1995-96 to 2007-08. Germany is the leading importer of leathergarments during 2007-08. The share of Belgium and Canada has increased over the years.Leather garments exports to Germany, Italy, USA, France, UK and Netherlands declined overthe years.
5Leather Footwear Components: Indias exports of leather footwear components have beendecreasing at an annual rate of 2.27% during 1995-96 to 2007-08. Indias exports of leatherfootwear components have increased to Spain, Portugal, France, Switzerland, Slovakia,Austria and Hungar, Italy, Germany and France are the major importers of Indian LeatherFootwear components.Saddlery and Harnesses: Indias exports of saddlery and harnesses have been increasing atthe annual rate of 8.96% in the period of 1995-96 to 2007-08. However, the export shares ofUSA, Germany, France, Netherlands and Australia have been declining.Globalisation and Prospects for Indian Leather SectorCurrently India has a share of 2.3 per cent (i.e. US $ 2 billion) of global trade of leather andleather products. India has a large and growing middle class of about 250 million people withgood purchasing power. Global players in the leather business, big or small are todayfocusing increasingly on India's domestic market.
The livestock is the raw material for the leather industry. Cattle, buffaloes, goat and sheepare the four live stock species which provide the basic raw materials for the leather industry.India ranks first among major livestock holding countries in the world. In fact, India has thecapacity to fulfil 10% of the global leather requirement. The annual availability of 218million good quality pieces of hides and skins is the main strength of the industry. Along withrich endowment of raw materials, the industry has access to abundant supply of cheap labour.Over the years through government support the industry has been able to develop its R & Dfacilities considerably. Though there is much to be done in order to meet the challenges ofglobalization, the industry has established a sound base for the same.
Tools & Equipment Used in Leather Goods Making
8TutorialHow to make a Soccer's ballStep by stepStitching and assembling of panels.
The stitching of two panels pentagon and hexagon there are different steps.To stitch the first panels hexagon and second are pentagonTo after second are stitch the pentagon edge to stitch of hexagonAfter stitch the five panels hexagon and one is pentagonAn to after stitch thane panels pentagon and second panels hexagonTo regular stitch in five panels pentagon and five panels hexagonTo after stitching of six panels and ten panels stitch the joint That called semi round stitching To after to semi rounded to attached after stitch in to beforeTo attached the bladderThe after stitching of football etc.
9REQUIRED MATERIAL1) 12 Panel of pentagonal.2) 20Panel of hexagonal.3) Cotton thread.4) Wax.5) bladder.
STEP 1 - First off all we attach two hexagonal panel with printing STEP 2 - Second step we do attach two hexagonal pattern with the help of needle and wax, wax, is use for smoothing thread and water propones.STEP 3 - We stitch one panel pentagonal and one hexagonal and other.STEP 4 - We attach all pattern stitch step one and two, with the step 3rd panels. Keep in mind that pentagonal panel we his in center of hexagonal panel. And we stitch all components with tightness.
1 Pentagonal and 5 hexagonal panel
STEP 5 - After that stitch a round component we stitch again two panels one hexagonal and pentagonal each.STEP 6 - Again we stitch two panels one the hexagonal and stitch Panel with hexagonal.STEP 7 - Again we stitch two hexagonal panel with each other.STEP 8 - And again we stitch two joint panel with the joint hexagonal and pentagonal panel and again make like a flower types component.
12STEP 9 - And we stitch in 9 step one of hexagonal and one pentagonal are keep in mind that pentagonal cone put always done site and hexagonal base down site. And stitch these types that hexagonal base and pentagonal cone. Rest in down sire and at last we make a all prude in round safe both site we stitch with each other. STEP 10 - In step 10 we make half football. We stitch step 9 component step 8 step component with prepared all and stitch with very smooth that we stitch pentagonal patterns with two panels hexagonal and, hexagonal base and that types we stitch around safe with like a flower. And after all panel stitch we get half safe of football.
13Half SafeSTEP 11 - Again we make half football 2nd panel then we stitch one hexagonal kind. And we again make in round safe.
14STEP:-12- Again we make half football or out port of football with component a football. football
Lets make A fabric carry bag
22I made these bags for all the craft projects I have on the go. The idea is to fill them with everything you need to work on your project and hang them out of the way on coat hangers in the wardrobe ready to grab at a moments notice and start crafting. The removable labels are to tell you what project is in what bag. Alternatively, leave the label off altogether to use as a regular tote. What we need 1/2 metre of fabric per bag vinyl plastic* cardboard or paper for labels sewing tools, ruler / tape measure, scissors etc
23Cut these pieces 2 x 45cm x 35cm pieces for the body of the bag 2 x 35cm x 6cm pieces for the handles 1 x 10cm x 6cm piece of vinyl 1 x 9cm x 5cm piece of cardboard
Make the pocket
Using a ruler, find the horizontal centre of your bag and pin your plastic label in place. I put the label about 9cm from the top of the bag.
Stitch around the three sides of the label with a 3/8 seam leaving the top open.
25Make the handles Fold the handles in half lengthwise right sides together and sew along the seam.
Turn the handles right side out. I find a chopstick helpful for this job.
26Start the bag seam This bag has a French seam, which makes the seam nice and tidy with no raw edges inside. Start by sewing a 1/4 seam around the edge of the bag, leaving the top open, wrong sides together. Trim the corners and the seams.
27Press Turn the bag wrong side out and press the seams. Be careful not to iron over the plastic as the hot iron could melt it. Press the handles. finish the seam While the bag is wrong side out, stitch a 3/8 seam around the edges encasing the raw edges within the seam. Press.
28Square off the bottom Line up the side seams with the bottom seam to make a triangle. Pin and measure 3cm from the tip of the triangle. Rule a line and sew along to square off the bag bottom.
Stitch Bottom side with lining together
30Hem the top and add the handles With the bag turned wrong side ou