ICEM 2012 -The Application of Design Thinking Methodology on Research Practices

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The difficult task of innovation is a key facet of Research & Development (R&D) institutions. Innovation is also closely related with processes oriented to achieve solutions in design. By addressing this topic, we propose to research new emerging design methods and provide an overview of design thinking tools that can be applied in an early stage of the R&D research process in order to produce meaningful results. This research presents a set of experimental guidelines and an analysis method for the application of these tools.

Text of ICEM 2012 -The Application of Design Thinking Methodology on Research Practices

  • 1. authors Joana Cerejo and Prof. lvaro Barbosa28 September, 2012

2. Context& GoalsMethodology Theoretical Framework Design Thinkingagenda stepsProposed Method Case Studies&Conclusions Future Work 3. Context Design has changed its paradigm. Currently it is a tool for development, innovation and productivity. Now it goes much further than simply conception of an artifact. 4. The new design paradigms associated with the R&D management processes are an opportunity to maximize the transfer of knowledge and technology to various industries, in particular the creative industries. 5. Purposes of the study The tools and methods that R&D projects can use to innovate successfully existing research exercises or designing new ones is the main focus of this study. 6. Our goal is to create an analysis toolkit that enables both non-specialist and specialist users in order to perform high-quality design production. The challenge of this study is to develop a methodological tool that increases productivity within the R&D framework and innovation processes. 7. With this research, we aspected achieve new emerging design methods and provide an overview of design thinking tools that can be applied in an early stage of the R&D research process in order to produce meaningful results, that fosters economic growth as well as creative goals. 8. The design process is what puts design thinking into action. It is a structured approach to generating and evolving ideas.Methodology The design thinking process is a highly interactive and incremental process, driven by people with dierent backgrounds and experiences. 9. Case Studies The Case studies was applied in the framework of these two Portuguese R&D organizations:Because it is a small sample, the present results should not be considered as denitive, but as a reference for future research. 10. Fourth Design Orders; Wicked Problems from Richard Buchanan [1992, 1998, 2001]Theoretical Framework Abductive Reasoning fromExploration and Exploitation from Roger Martin [2009]Charles Pierce [1865]Flowchart 11. Design Thinking Design ThinkingFourth Order of Design Third Order of Design Second Order of Design First Order of Design 12. One of the main focuses of design thinking is the expression towards the user and end-user. Therefore, design thinking has a strong focus on human and user needs, in order to involve the user into the process as and placing them in the center of solving innovation problems. (Lockwood, 2009). 13. Holistic Design thinking has also a strong foundation in a holistic perspective since it advocates a comprehensive analysis and a general understanding of the phenomena. Anderson (2007).Co-creative It acts as a bridge between the project and all the stokeholds involved in a project, focusing in optimizing the processes. (Stickdorn & Schneider 2012; Ambrose & Harris 2010). 14. Multidisciplinary Design thinking has a strong element in multidisciplinary teams. It uses a vast range of methods and tools from various disciplines in order to explore and understand the behaviour and mindset of all people involved. (Stickdorn & Schneider 2012). 15. Problem Solving The challenges faced in R&D are mainly "wicked problems". The processes and tools used by design thinking are exible and allow an ecient balance between this type of context. (Buchanan1992; Martin 2009; Kolko 2011).Abductive Thinking Through abductive reasoning, designer are able to take incomplete data, manipulate it in various ways and invent things that are relevant, innovative or appropriate; for this reason this becomes one of the focal aspects of design thinking. (Martin 2009; Kolko 2011; Golsby-Smith, 1996). 16. Proposed Method The design process is what puts design thinking into action. It is a structured approach to generating and evolving ideas. The design thinking process is a highly interactive and incremental process, driven by people with dierent backgrounds and experiences. Authors such as Stemple & badke_Schaub (2002) and Brown (2009) defend that the design process has 4 stages:ExplorationCreationReectionImplementation 17. Flowchart The presented methodology aims to identify the main criteria and tools that could be implemented into the actions of R&D organizations. To this end, we structured a owchart that allows navigating through an itinerary that permits identifying the driving objectives and purpose of each project. 18. Design Thinking Diagnostic tool YesTasks Schedule!Product or Service are dened?NoShall we have a Brief ?Start by choosing the nature of your Project.NoToolContext PanoramaExploration YesOr/And Or/AndToolToolOr/AndOr/AndToolToolBrainstormingMoodboardExploitationGroup SketchingYesToolAnity DiagramNew Context?ToolMind MapSDONoOr/AndToolToolMotivation MatrixYesShall we have the endusers point of view?YesDo you know the endusers proles?Or/AndTask Analysis GridToolYesNoToolNoConsider Case Studys?Case StudiesYesShall we consider use Case Studies or Scenario Building? ToolUse CasesStakeholder MapsNoStakeholder are already dened?EvidencingScenario BuildingOr/AndOr/AndBlueprintBrand MatrixToolToolPersonasToolToolSystem MapNoToolCultural ProbesMarket Research!ToolInteraction TableOr/AndOr/And ToolToolDesktop WalktroughToolCharacter ProlesToolToolCustomer Journey MapActores MapRole PlayToolIssue CardsToolMock UpNoAre you satised with the progress?Yes Implementation ToolPoster ToolExperience PrototypingToolRole Script ToolTemplatesToolStorytellingToolScenario BuildingToolTouchpoints MatrixToolStoryboard 19. Design Thinking Diagnostic tool YesTasks Schedule!Product or Service are dened?NoShall we have a Brief ?Start by choosing the nature of your Project.NoToolContext PanoramaExploration YesOr/And Or/AndToolToolOr/AndOr/AndToolToolBrainstormingMoodboardExploitationGroup SketchingYesToolAnity DiagramNew Context?ToolMind MapSDONoOr/AndToolToolMotivation MatrixYesShall we have the endusers point of view?YesDo you know the endusers proles?Or/AndTask Analysis GridToolYesNoToolNoConsider Case Studys?Case StudiesYesShall we consider use Case Studies or Scenario Building? ToolUse CasesStakeholder MapsNoStakeholder are already dened?EvidencingScenario BuildingOr/AndOr/AndBlueprintBrand MatrixToolToolPersonasToolToolSystem MapNoToolCultural ProbesMarket Research!ToolInteraction TableOr/AndOr/And ToolToolDesktop WalktroughToolCharacter ProlesToolToolCustomer Journey MapActores MapRole PlayToolIssue CardsToolMock UpNoAre you satised with the progress?Yes Implementation ToolPoster ToolExperience PrototypingToolRole Script ToolTemplatesToolStorytellingToolScenario BuildingToolTouchpoints MatrixToolStoryboard 20. Design Thinking Diagnostic tool YesTasks Schedule!Product or Service are dened?NoShall we have a Brief ?Start by choosing the nature of your Project.NoToolContext PanoramaExploration YesOr/And Or/AndToolToolOr/AndOr/AndToolToolBrainstormingMoodboardExploitationGroup SketchingYesToolAnity DiagramNew Context?ToolMind MapSDONoOr/AndToolToolMotivation MatrixYesShall we have the endusers point of view?YesDo you know the endusers proles?Or/AndTask Analysis GridToolYesNoToolNoConsider Case Studys?Case StudiesYesShall we consider use Case Studies or Scenario Building? ToolUse CasesStakeholder MapsNoStakeholder are already dened?EvidencingScenario BuildingOr/AndOr/AndBlueprintBrand MatrixToolToolPersonasToolToolSystem MapNoToolCultural ProbesMarket Research!ToolInteraction TableOr/AndOr/And ToolToolDesktop WalktroughToolCharacter ProlesToolToolCustomer Journey MapActores MapRole PlayToolIssue CardsToolMock UpNoAre you satised with the progress?Yes Implementation ToolPoster ToolExperience PrototypingToolRole Script ToolTemplatesToolStorytellingToolScenario BuildingToolTouchpoints MatrixToolStoryboard 21. Case studies ARTTSToolBrand MatrixToolSystem MapToolToolPersonasCharacter ProlesStreambolicoToolBrand MatrixToolSystem MapToolPersonasToolActores MapToolExperience PrototypingToolCharacter ProlesToolStorytellingThis research work is based on tests performed in two dierent typologies of projects, in order to determine if design tools can inuence innovation success in R&D. 22. Pre Field WorkField WorkPost Field WorkIf an transversal approach of design thinking tools on R&D research processes were a successful approach. In the end, the relationship between these two realities can contribute to innovation success. 23. Stage1.2Dene a list of participants1.3Dene a meeting date Conduct meeting one diagnostic of applicable tools for each project2.2Preparation of customized owchart using the tools identied in 2.12.3Conducting meeting two - application of the owchart prepared in 2.2 at the Exploration and Creation stage2.4Conducting meeting three - application of the owchart prepared in 2.2 at the Reection and Implementation stages3.1Analysis of material produced by participants3.2 Post Field WorkIdentifying two project to test the owchart and serve as an example for the case studies2.1Field WorkObjectives1.1 Pre Field WorkPhasesOrganization of the selection of ideas registered in material produced by participants the3.3Synthesis of a nal composition3.4Deployment of surveys to the stakeholders3.4Evaluation the value of the proposed methodology 24. Results After the meetings, it was administered a questionnaire in order to evaluate a qualitative performance of the proposed model. Through this procedure, it was possible to observe that the groups shared the same points of view relative to the application of the proposed method. 25. The owchart became a useful tool that is able to identify a set of design thinking tools in order to be applied in dierent situations. Hence, the evaluation of these two pilot case studies trough the use of a questionnaire also showed that these organizations are open to the use of design thinking as a methodology and considered that the results were meaningful. Would you b