HISTORY: Baroque Architecture

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Baroque Architecture

Baroque ArchitectureVenice Indorte Roxanne CartagenaDFR1A

What is Baroque architecture?is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state. It was characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow, and dramatic intensity.In Spain the term 'Baroque' originally denoted an irregular, oddly-shaped pearl, whereas in Italy it meant a pedantic, contorted argument of little dialectic value.parang ikaw

History of Baroque Architecture (1550-1790)As the 16th century unfolded, the religious, political and philosophical certainties which had prevailed during the Early (c.1400-85) and High (1486-1520) Renaissance periods, began to unravel.In 1517, Martin Luther sparked the Protestant Reformation, casting European-wide doubt on the integrity and theology of the Roman Church. This was the catalyst for several wars involving France, Italy, Spain and England, and led directly to the Counter-Reformation movement, launched by Rome, to attract the masses away from Protestantism.For the rest of the century, this more dynamic style was known as Mannerism (style-ishness), and thereafter, Baroque - a term derived from the Portugese word barocco, meaning 'an irregular pearl'.

Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, a visible statement of the wealth and power of the Church. The new style manifested itself in particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed to improve popular piety.A synthesis of Bernini, Borromini and Cortonas architecture can be seen in the late Baroque architecture of northern Europe which paved the way for the more decorative Rococo style.In general, Baroque architecture constituted part of the struggle for religious superiority and for the hearts and minds of worshippers across Europe.

Michelangelo's late Roman buildings, particularly St. Peter's Basilica, may be considered precursors to Baroque architecture. His pupil Giacomo della Porta continued this work in Rome, particularly in the faade of the Jesuit church Il Ges, which leads directly to the most important church faade of the early Baroque, Santa Susanna (1603), by Carlo Maderno. Its facade is "the first truly baroque faade", introducing the baroque style into architecture.

St. Peters basilica

Early baroqueThe foremost pioneer of Baroque architecture was Carlo Maderno, whose masterpiece is the facade of Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. (Constructed under various architects throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Saint Peter's features a mixture of Renaissance and Baroque components, the facade being one of the latter.)Prior to Maderno, Saint Peter's had featured a central plan design, upon which various architects had worked (especially Michelangelo). Maderno converted the building into a Latin cross basilica by extending the nave, thus pushing the main entrance of the church forward. Saint Peter's can therefore be roughly divided into two parts: the core (designed largely by Michelangelo) and the front extension (designed by Maderno). The great dome of Saint Peter's is also chiefly Michelangelo's work, though Maderno did adjust its proportions (by stretching it vertically).

High baroqueThe two foremost names in Baroque architecture are Bernini and Borromini, both of whom worked primarily in Rome.

Two masterpieces of Gian Lorenzo Bernini are found at St Peter's. One is the four-story baldachin that stands over the high altar.(A baldachin is an indoor canopy over a respected object, such as an altar or throne.) The other is the curving colonnades that frame St Peter's Square.

Bernini's most famous building is likely the small church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale ("Saint Andrew's on Quirinal Hill"). Quirinal hill is one of the "seven hills of Rome".

Francesco Borromini was the master of curved-wall architecture. Though he designed many large buildings, Borromini's most famous and influential work may be the small church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane ("Saint Charles at the Four Fountains"). This building is also found on Quirinal Hill.

Late baroqueThe Late Baroque marks the ascent of France as the heart of Western culture. Baroque art of France (and northern Europe generally) tends to be restrained, such that it can be described as a classical-Baroque compromise. The most distinctive element of French Baroque architecture is the double-sloped mansard roof (a French innovation).

The most famous Baroque structures of France are magnificent chateaux (grand country residences), greatest of which is the Palace of Versailles. One of the largest residences on earth, Versailles was built mainly under Louis XIV, whose patronage of the arts helped propel France to the crest of Western culture.

The palace facade admirably illustrates the classical-Baroque compromise of northern Europe. The walls are characterized largely by simple planar classicism, although they do contain such Baroque elements as sculpted busts, a triple stringcourse, double pilasters, and colossal pilasters. Additionally, the mansard roof features a sinuous metal railing and rich moulding around the dormer windows. Versailles became Europe's model of palace architecture, inspiring similarly grand residences throughout the continent.

Types of baroque Italian baroqueFrench baroqueSpanish baroque

Italian baroqueThe sacred architecture of the Baroque period had its beginnings in the Italian paradigm of the basilica with crossed dome and nave. One of the first Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions exemplified in the Ges, was the church of Santa Susanna, designed by Carlo Maderno. The dynamic rhythm of columns and pilasters, central massing, and the protrusion and condensed central decoration add complexity to the structure. There is an incipient playfulness with the rules of classic design, still maintaining rigor. They had domed roofs.

San Lorenzo (Turin)Church of susanna

Church of GesuTrevi Fountain

French baroqueThe attempt of the French court to introduce Italian Baroque into France, by summoning Bernini in 1665 to Paris and commissioning him to design the reconstruction of the royal palace - the Louvre - was doomed from the outset.At the court of the Roi Soleila Baroque style was developed which was more restrained than the Italian: ground-plans were less complex, and facades more severe, with greater respect for the details and proportions of the traditional architectural orders, and violent effects and flagrant caprices were eschewed.French Baroque profoundly influenced 18th-century secular architecture throughout Europe. In particular, the Palace of Versailles and the jardin la franaise were copied by other courts all over Europe.

Les invalides

Basilica of superga

Palais du Luxembourg

Chteau de Maisons-Layo

Chteau de Maisons-Laffitte

Spanish baroqueis a strand of Baroque architecture that evolved in Spain, its provinces, and former colonies.The development of the style passed through three phases. Between 1680 and 1720, the Churriguera popularized Guarini's blend of Solomonic columns and composite order, known as the "supreme order". Three of the most eye-catching creations of Spanish Baroque are the energetic facades of the University of Valladolid (Diego Tome and Fray Pedro de la Visitacin, 1719), the western faade (or Fachada del Obradoiro) of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (Fernando de Casas y Novoa, 1750) and Hospicio de San Fernando in Madrid (Pedro de Ribera, 1722), whose curvilinear extravagance seems to herald Antonio Gaud and Art Nouveau.

Catedral de Santiago de CompostelaUniversity of Valladolid

Royal Hospice of San FernandoCathedral Church of Saint Mary

Distinctive features of Baroque architecture can include:

In churches, broader naves and sometimes given oval formsFragmentary or deliberately incomplete architectural elementsdramatic use of light; either strong light-and-shade contrasts (chiaroscuro effects) as at the church of Weltenburg Abbey, or uniform lighting by means of several windows (e.g. church of Weingarten Abbey)opulent use of color and ornaments (putti or figures made of wood (often gilded), plaster or stucco, marble or faux finishing)large-scale ceiling frescoesan external faade often characterized by a dramatic central projectionthe interior is a shell for painting, sculpture and stucco (especially in the late Baroque) pear-shaped domes in the Bavarian, Czech, Polish and Ukrainian BaroqueMarian and Holy Trinity columns erected in Catholic countries, often in thanksgiving for ending a plague

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