B con report Experiencing, documenting and analysing the Construction Process

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download


PowerPoint Presentation

ContentIntroduction1.01.1 Introduction to Site Pg1Site Safety

2.02.1 Site safety Pg2 (John)2.2 Construction Safety Pg3 (John)External WorksFoundationSuperstructure

3.03.1 Signage 3.2 Temporary Buildings 3.3 Services and Facilities3.4 Fencing Works3.5 Machineries 3.6 Equipment 3.7 Sewerage works 3.8 Drainage system4.04.1 Introduction4.2 Foundation Types 4.3 Foundation Laying Process5.05.1 Beams and columns 5.1.1 Beams 5.1.2 Types 5.1.3 Installation 5.1.4 Connections 5.1.5 Columns 5.1.6 Joints


5.4 Staircase5.4.1 Introduction5.4.2 Methodology5.4.3 Material Types5.4.4 Installation I5.4.5 Stair Plans5.4.6 Installation II5.4.7 Skirting5.4.8 Finishes5.4.9 Standard Requirements

5.5 Railings5.5.1 Types5.5.2 Methodology5.5.3 Safety Issues

5.6 Floors5.6.1 Introduction5.6.2 Types5.6.3 Concrete Ground Slab5.6.4 Concrete Slab5.6.5 Ground Slab5.6.6 Reinforce Concrete Floor 5.6.7 Material

5.2 Walls5.2.1 Types of masonry5.2.2 Structural Support5.2.3 On-site brick wall5.2.4 Construction Technique

5.3 Ceiling 5.3.1 Introduction5.3.2 Types5.3.3 Jointless ceiling5.3.4 Skim coating5.3.5 Installation6.06.1 Introduction6.2 Roof Type6.3 Installation6.4 Roof InsulationDoor7.07.1 Introduction7.2 Type7.3 Subframing7.4 Main Frame7.5 Door Panel & Iron Mongery7.6 Architraves

Window8.08.1 Introduction8.2 Material8.3 Type8.4 Sub-frame8.5 Installation8.6 GlazingSummaryPg11 (Victor)Pg11 Pg12-13Pg14 (Raymond)Pg14 Pg14 Pg15 Pg15 Pg16 Pg16 Pg17 (Jia Jun)Pg18 Pg19 Pg20 Pg21

Pg22 (John)Pg22 Pg22 Pg23 Pg23 Pg24-25

Pg26 (Pui San)Pg26 Pg27Pg28-29 Pg30 Pg31 Pg32 Pg32 Pg33 Pg34

Pg35 (Nianzi)Pg35 Pg36 Pg37

Pg38 (Jit Ying)Pg38 Pg38 Pg38 Pg39 Pg40 Pg41-42 Pg43

Pg44Pg45-46 Pg46 Pg47

Pg48 (Nianzi)Pg48 Pg49 Pg50Pg51Pg52

Pg53 Pg53 Pg54 Pg55 Pg55 Pg55

Pg5 (Jit Ying)Pg5 (Jit Ying)Pg5 (Jit Ying)Pg6 (Jit Ying)Pg6-8 (John)Pg9 (John)Pg10 (Andrew)Pg10 (Andrew)9.0 Reflection & citation


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Introduction to Project This project requires us, in a group of 9, to select a minimum of one on-going construction site to survey. The site chosen should be a medium rise building with a maximum of 4-storeys level or a low rise building such as a bungalow house, etc. From the site, we are to identify various types of the building elements. Apart from that, we need to observe as well as to record the construction process, the details such as the specification of the materials used, including the diameters, sizes and procedures in constructing the components. In addition to that, we need to analyse and explain on how the construction chosen affect its surroundings.We have decided to survey only one site for this project. This is because the information from the site are enough us to obtain on the processes that occur on the construction site due to the variation of the type of elements, material as well as the process in completing the building.1.2 Introduction to sites Kota Puteriis a new township inSelangor,Malaysia. Have 12 Section in this township.Selangor State Development Corporationis the developer forKota Puteri. Kota Puteri are under the administration ofMajlis Perbandaran Selayang. This township is located nearIjok. Kota Puteri also known as Bandar Baru Batu Arang. Kota Puterilocated at theeastofKuala SelangorandwestofRawang. It is at the end of theGombakdistrict andKuala Selangordistrict border. In addition, Kota Puteri nearBatu Arang,Bandar Tasik Puteri,Ijok,Kampung Bukit Badong,Bestari JayaandHutan Simpan Rantau Panjang.The site we visit is the Double storeys townhouse in Kota Puteri, Rawang, Selangor.

The biggest attraction of the townhouse is it consist two storeys respective house for two different families. Such arrangement allows the selling price to be lower than the normal terrace house. Aslo, sprawling a vast 820 acres (approximate value), Kota Puteri is located at the east of Kuala Selangor, close to the town of Ijok. With a master plan of 12 sections, Kota Puteri features a range of homes and commercial space, amongst other amenities such as school, recreational hubs and more.In the pipeline are elegant homes in a wide 24 x 45 built up. In its very own enclave of Kota Puteri within Seksyen 5, these thoughtfully-designed homes are just around the corner from the Kota Puteri Lake. Kota Puteri is developed by Perbadanan Kemajuan Negeri Selangor (PKNS) which has become synonymous with success and growth in the property development sector within Selangor.


2.0 Site Safety

2.1 Site safetyThe Department of Occupations Safety and Health (DOSH) has stipulated roles of 1994 Section 17 Duties of employers and self-employed to their employees which contractors are aware to play in promoting safety programs and safe behaviour. They have an obligation to ensure that their workers are not exposed to risks which can affect their safety and health. This role in not only the workers at the place of work but also the public. These roles and regulations are supply to all Construction Sites in Malaysia who cover by the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994, Act 514.

2.1 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as "PPE", is equipment worn to minimize exposure to serious workplace injuries and illnesses. These injuries and illnesses may result from contact with chemical, radiological, physical, electrical, mechanical, or other workplace hazards. Personal protective equipment may include items such as gloves, safety glasses and shoes, earplugs or muffs, hard hats, respirators, or coveralls, vests and full body suits. Equipment worn to minimize exposure to serious workplace injure and illnesses, items such as gloves, safety boots, safety helmet, respirators and vests. All personal protective equipment should fit well and be comfortable to wear. If the personal protective equipment does not fit properly, it can make the difference between being safely covered or dangerously exposed.

Safety Helmet

Asafety helmetis a type of helmet predominantly used in workplace environments such as industrial orconstruction sites to protect theheadfrom injury due to falling objects, impact with other objects, debris, rain, and electric shock. Suspension bands inside the helmet spreads the helmet's weight and the force of any impact over the top of the head. A suspension also provides space of approximately 30mm (1.2 inch) between the helmet's shell and the wearer's head, so that if an object strikes the shell, the impact is less likely to be transmitted directly to the skull. Some helmet shells have a mid-line reinforcement ridge to improve impact resistance.

Safety Gloves

Safety gloves arehand garments meant for the protection of the wrist, hand, fingers, and thumbs from adverse processes or conditions. These items are virtually limitless in application and findemployment inboth industrial and commercial marketplaces. Their functionalityis determined by the material and design of the glove.

Safety Boots

Safety boots is a durablebootorshoethat has a protective reinforcement in the toewhich protects the foot from falling objects or compression, usually combined with a mid-sole plate to protect against punctures from below. Although traditionally made of steel, the reinforcement can also be made of acomposite material, a plastic such as thermoplastic (TPU) or evenaluminum. Steel-toe boots are important in the constructionindustry and in many industrial settings.


2.2 Construction Safety

Construction is one of the most dangerous land-based work sectors. The problem is not that the hazards and risks are unknown, it is that they are very difficult to control in a constantly changing work environment.


Various workplace safety signs commonly used at construction sites and industrial work environments. Some of the main health hazards on site are asbestos, solvents, noise and manual handing activities.

Fire Extinguisher

Afire extinguisher, orextinguisher, is anactive fire protectiondevice used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached theceiling, endangers the user, or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressurecontaining anagent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire.ABC is the most used and most popular multipurpose powder fire extinguisher for construction sites, can be used on class A (burning solids), B (liquid fires) & C (gases fires).

Temporary Handrail

Temporary Handrail do provide temporary handrail leading people go to the site office and prevent people fall from the slope or staircases.

Fencing Temporary fencing prevent people get into the side easily and provide security and safety.

Safety Harnes

Asafety harnessis a form of protective equipmentdesigned to protect a person, animal, or object frominjuryor damage. The harness is an attachment between a stationary and non-stationary object and is usually fabricated fromrope,cableor webbingand locking hardware.Some safety harnesses are used in combination with ashock absorber, which is used to regulatedecelerationwhen the end of the rope is reached. One example would beconstruction used


3.0 External Works


Drainage SystemSite Office BuildingSmall Scale Sundry ShopTemporary Sheds

External works are all the works that are completed before any foundations are laid. External works are all items outside the building footprint but inside the site boundary, encompassing wastewater and surface water drains, supply of utilities (e.g. gas, electricity and cabled services), footpaths, and access for vehicles including car parks and hard standings to be found in the vicinity of buildings.


2. Temporary electric supplyElectric power supply is essential to provide site office, temporary sheds and machinery on site to function properly.

2. Small scale sundry shopIt is set up to provide food and drinks for labourers during their break time so as to accommodate labourers with refreshment conveniently.

3.2 Temporary Buildings1. Site office buildingSite office buildings are fundamental for smooth-running operations in any industry. Whether permanent or portable, an on-site office portable cabinmust be durable and functional in order to accommodate the intricate demands of daily work. At the same time, it needs to be comfortable and inviting for workers and visitors. This is especially important in remote locations where modular transportable offices are places for both working and living through long hours and in unpredictable environments.

3. Temporary shedsIt is used to organize and store materials besides acting as shelter for the labourers

3. Temporary toiletsTemporary toilets are normally use in construction site as there is limited space and it is as important to provide restroom facilities that are clean, comfortable and convenient to the labourers as it is part of their welfare. The amount of toilet is equivalent to one toilet to seven people.

3.3 Services and Facilities

1. Existing water supplySupplying drinking water throughout construction sites is now a requirement from health and safety standards. Some water usage for construction is for site welfare, drilling operations, hydro-demolition and also wheel washing.

3.1 Signage Safety signs must be used whenever a hazard or danger cannot be avoided adequately or reduced in another way. Before installing safety signs an employer should examine whether the hazard can be avoided or reduced by collective precautions (precautions that protect everybody) or safer ways of doing the work.

The Regulations cover a variety of methods of communicating health and safety information in addition to the traditional safety sign or signboard.


3.5 Machineries

3.5.1 Backhoe Loader

Backhoe Loader is a piece of excavating equipment ordiggerconsisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. They are typically mounted on the back of atractoror front loader. The section of the arm closest to the vehicle is known as the boom, and the section which carries the bucket is known as the dipperor dipper-stick (the terms boom" and dipper" having been used previously onsteam shovels). The boom is generally attached to the vehicle through a pivot known as the king-post, which allows the arm to slew left and right, usually through a total of around 200 degrees.

3.5.2 Backhoe Excavator

Backhoe Excavator is a heavy construction equopment consisting of aboom, stick, bucket and cab on a rotating platform known as the "house".The house sits atop an undercarriage withtracksorwheels. A cable-operated excavator uses winches and steel ropes to accomplish the movements. They are a natural progression from thesteam shovels.and often mistakenly calledpower shovels. All movement and functions of a hydraulic excavator are accomplished through the use ofhydraulic fluid, with hydraulic cylindersandhydraulic motors. Due to the linear actuation of hydraulic cylinders, their mode of operation is fundamentally different from cable-operated excavators.

Hoarding is a temporary structure of solid construction, erected around the perimeter of construction sites to shield them from view and prevent unauthorised access.It also minimise disturbances and improve privacy, both for the general public and for workers on site. It must be structurally stable, as it can be exposed to strong wind loads, or impact.Hoarding is made up of wide range of materials such as steel, timber or plywood which may be re-useable or disposable after a particular construction work is done.Hoarding/Fencing3.4 Fencing


3.5.5 Compactor (Vibratory Roller)

Acompactoris amachine or mechanism used to reduce the size ofwaste material or soil throughcompaction. Atrash compactoris often used by a home or business to reduce the volume of trash. Normally powered byhydraulics, compactors take many shapes and sizes. Inlandfillsites for example, a largebulldozer with spiked wheels called alandfill compactor is used to drive over waste deposited bywaste collection vehicles(WCVs).WCVs themselves incorporate a compacting mechanism which is used to increase thepayload of the vehicle and reduce the number of times it has to empty. This usually takes the form of hydraulically powered sliding plates which sweep out the collectionhopper and compress the material into what has already been loaded. Different compactors are used inscrap metal processing, the most familiar being thecar crusher. Such devices can be of either the "pancake" type, where a scrapautomobile is flattened by a huge descending hydraulically powered plate, or thebalingpress, where the automobile is compressed from several directions until it resembles a large cube.

3.5.3 Bulldozer

Abulldozeris acrawler(continuous trackedtractor) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as ablade) used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, or other such material duringconstructionor conversion work and typically equipped at the rear with a claw-like device (known as aripper) to loosen densely compacted materials. Bulldozers can be found on a wide range of sites,minesandquarries, military bases, heavy industry factories, engineering projects and farms. The term "bulldozer" refers only to a tractor (usually tracked) fitted with a dozer blade.

3.5.4 Pile Driver (Crane Mounted Frame Drop Hammer)

Apile driveris a mechanical device used to drivepiles (poles) into soil to providefoundation support for buildings or other structures. The term is also used in reference to members of the construction crew that work with pile-driving rigs. One traditional type of pile driver includes a heavy weight placed between guides so that it is able to freely slide up and down in a single line. It is placed above apile(pole). The weight is raised, which may involve the use ofhydraulics, steam,diesel, or manual labor. When the weight reaches its highest point it is then released and smashes on to the pile in order to drive it into the ground.


3.5.6 Mobile Crane (Truck Mounted)

Amobile craneis "a cable-controlled crane mounted on crawlersor rubber-tired carriers" or "a hydraulic-powered crane with a telescoping boom mounted ontruck-type carriers or as self-propelled models.They are designed to easily transport to a site and use with different types of load and cargo with little or no setup or assembly.

3.5.7 Truck

Truck is amotor vehicledesigned to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size, power, and configuration, with the smallest being mechanically similar to an automobile. Commercial trucks can be very large and powerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case offire trucksand concrete mixersandsuction excavators.

3.5.8 Forklifts

Aforklift(also called alift truck, afork truck, or a forklift truck) is a powered industrialtruck used to lift and move materials short distances. The forklift was developed in the early 20th century by various companies including thetransmission manufacturing company Clarkand the hoist companyYale & Towne Manufacturing.

3.5.9 Concrete Mixing Transport Trucks

Concrete Mixing transport trucks are made to transport and mix concrete up to the construction site. They can be charged with dry materials and water, with the mixing occurring during transport. They can also be loaded from a "central mix" plant, with this process the material has already been mixed prior to loading. The concrete mixing transport truck maintains the material's liquid state through agitation, or turning of the drum, until delivery. The interior of the drum on a concrete mixing truck is fitted with aspiral blade.


3.6 Equipment

Hoist (device)

Ahoistis a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically orpneumaticallydriven and may use chain, fibre or wireropeas its lifting medium. The load is attached to the hoist by means of alifting hook.

Concrete Drum Mixer

Aconcrete mixer(also commonly called acement mixer) is a device that homogeneously combinescement,aggregatesuch as sand or gravel, andwater to formconcrete. A typical concrete mixer uses a revolving drum to mix the components. For smaller volume works portable concrete mixers are often used so that the concrete can be made at the construction site, giving the workers ample time to use the concrete before it hardens. An alternative to a machine is mixing concrete by hand. This is usually done in a wheelbarrow; however, several companies have recently begun to sell modifiedtarpsfor this purpose.

Power Generators

Power Generators is a device that convertsmechanical energytoelectrical energy for use in an externalcircuit. The source of mechanical energy may vary widely from a handcrankto aninternal combustion engine. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric.

Circular Electric Saw

Acircular sawis a power-saw using a toothed or abrasivediscordbladeto cut different materials using a rotary motion spinning around anarbor. Aholdandring sawalso uses a rotary motion but are different from a circular saw.Circular sawsmay also be loosely used for the blade itself. Circular saws were invented in the late 18th century and were in common use insawmillsin the United States by the middle of the 19th century. A circular saw is atoolfor cutting many materials such as wood,masonry,plastic, ormetal and may be hand-held or mounted to a machine.


3.7 Septic Work

A septic tank is a key component of the septic system, the small-scale sewage treatment system common in areas that lack connection to main sewage pipes provided by local governments or private corporations. Other components, generally controlled by local governments, may include pumps, alarms, sand filters. and clarified liquid effluent disposal methods such as a septic drain field,, ponds, natural stone fiber filter plants or peat moss beds. This septic tank is to be used basically by 50 residential houses in the site.

3.8 Drainage SystemDrainage system is provided to discharge effectively the sewage of the building into the public sewer. With efficient drainage, waste matter in residential area can be collected and remove systematically. Size of the drain should be sufficient so that they do not over flow at the time of maximum discharge.


4.0 Foundation

Choosing a kind of foundation depends on: The ground conditions The groundwater conditions The site, the environment (the buildings nearby) The structure of our building

AdvantagesUsually it is constructed under the ground, so it is out of sight

DisadvantagesIt is expensive and difficult to repairAn bad/ misapplied foundation could demolish the building

4.2 Foundation Types

Strip foundation (Wall footing)

Strip foundations consist of a continuous strip, usually of concrete, formed centrally under load bearing walls. This continuous strip serves as a level base on which the wall is built and is of such a width as is necessary to spread the load on the foundations to an area of subsoil capable of supporting the load without undue compaction.There are four type of foundation in general, which is strip foundation, pad foundation, grillage foundation and mat foundation. The type of foundation that has used on the site we have chosen was STRIP FOUNDATION. 4.1 IntroductionFoundation is the structure that transmits the load of the building to the soil and it is also the soil layer that has the sufficient load bearing capacity in relation to the chosen foundation type.

Requirements: Structural requirements: safe, be able to carry the load of the building Constructional requirements: schedule, minimal resources, minimal cost

The mistakes: Construction technology mistakes Planning mistakes: the type of foundation is inadequate for the ground layers / for the building

When is it applicable? -The load-bearing layer is near to bottom floor level -The loads of the building are light-medium11

4.3 Foundation Laying Process Step 1Step 2Step 3 (CASTING SLAB)

Wood dividers to form the shape of footings, concrete to be poured into the compartment after rebar is being placed.After concrete is being poured into the compartments.

Every exceeded rebar in the middle of footings corner from the ground will be built as pillars.-Compacted gravel-Moisture barrier-Laying rebar-Pouring concreteBefore rebar is laid, sand, soil, or gravel are required to fill the underneath of concreate densely (fig.1) to minimize the empty space which concrete might not able to reach as well as saving concrete. There are a few steps of procedures need to be done in order to make a proper and strong foundation. Without these steps, a foundation might not able to withstand the structure properly, which might lead to a lot of defects in the future.

GRAVELGravel is a loose aggregation of pounded stones that has been widely used in construction industry.

Layer Sequence12

Moisture Barrier

Installing a vapor barrier underneath the concrete slabs properly can prevent moisture build-up related issues such as: -Mold and mildew-Delamination in the overlay or sealer-Joint failure-Spalling-Cracking-Deterioration

It is also to help prevent expensive repairs due to moisture damage.Mechanical & Electrical work (M&E)

All electrical wiring and traps need to install properly before being covered by concrete.REBAR

After M&E work, rebar will be laid before concrete is poured. It is to strengthen and hold the concrete in tension. CONCRETE

The final step, mixed concrete will be poured onto the rebar from the concrete mixing machine/truck.Before this stage is completely done, workers will manually balance the concrete on the surface to make sure the layer below is all covered in every corners and levelling will be done later on to form a concrete foundation.


5.1 Beams and columns 5.1.1 BeamsA beam is a structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. The bending force induced into the material of the beam as a result of the external loads, own weight, span and external reactions to these loads is called a bending moment. Beams are characterized by their profile (shape of cross-section), their length, and their material.


Reinforcing bars extend into and down column support for structural continuity and to develop the required embedment length for anchorage

Grade beamTo transmit the load from a bearing wall into spaced foundations such pile caps and caissons. Used in footing construction when full footing is not necessary.

Reinforced concrete (RC) A concrete beam designed to act together with longitudinal and web reinforcement in resisting applied forces. Cast-in-place concrete beams are almost always formed and placed along with the slab they support. Because a portion of the slab acts as an integral part of the beam, the depth of the beam is measured to the top of the slab. Types: Rectangular, L-shaped, inverted-T

Advantages: High compressive strength and resistance to fire and weatherDisadvantages: Shrinkage causes crack development.

5.1 Beams and columns Overall Analysis5.1.2 TypesSteel Types: S shape, W shape, C shape, structural tubingWide-flange(W) shapes are commonly used because they are efficient for carrying both bending and shear loads in the plane of the web.Advantages: Flexible, durable, stable, lightweightDisadvantages: Expensive labour cost

A framed connection is a shear-resisting steel connection made by welding or bolting the web of a beam to the supporting column or girder with two angels or a single tab plate.

WoodTypes: Natural timber, laminated and engineeredAdvantages: Economical option, reduce energy cost, highly durable, aestheticalDisadvantages: Tendency to split, heavy, susceptible to rot and attacks by termites

A variety of metal attachments are manufactured for wood-to-wood, wood-to-metal and wood-to-masonry connections. Depending on the magnitude of the loads being resisted or transferred, the connections may be nailed or bolted.

CompositeComposite beams are constructed from more than one material to increase stiffness or strength (or to reduce cost). Steel and wood are coated to form beam with adequate strength.Steel and reinforced concrete are most commonly used.Advantages: Support strong vertical loadsDisadvantages: High labour cost5.0 Superstructure14


5.1.3 Installation

Simple beamRest on support on both ends, with the ends free to rotate and having no moment resistance.Cantilever beamProjecting beam Projecting beam or other rigid structural member supported at only one fixed end. Used in balconies and bay windows.Overhanging beamSimple beam extending beyond one supports.Double overhanging beamSimple beam extending beyond both its support.Fixed-end beamBoth ends restrained against translation and rotation.Suspended span beamSimple beam supported by the overhangs of two adjoining with pinned construction joints at points of zero moment.

Pouring concrete beams

1. Fixed rods of steel to tensile machinery. Arrange rods in 2 layers of equal numbers.

2. Build formwork around steel rods, ensuring rods run through the centre of the beam.3. Pour concrete into formwork, ensuring all steel is covered.

4. Allow concrete to cure for a few days and remove the formwork.

Concrete formwork for columns and walls may be custom-built for a specific job, but prefabricated, reusable panels are used whenever possible. The framework and bracing must be able to maintain the position and shape of the forms until the concrete sets.

5.1.4 Connections

Refer to the American Institute of Steel Constructions (AISCs) Manual of Steel Construction for steel section properties and dimensions, allowable load tables for beams and columns, and requirements for bolted and welded connections. In addition to strength and degree of rigidity, connections should be evaluated for economy of fabrication and erection, and for visual appearance if the structure is exposed to view.The strength of a connection depends on the sizes of the members and the connecting tees, angles, or plates, as well as the configuration of bolts or welds used. The AISC defines three types of steel framing that govern the sizes of members and the methods for their connections: moment connections, shear connections, and semi-rigid connections.

Shear connectionsSimple frame connections made to resist only shear.

Semi-rigid connectionsSemi-rigid connections assume beam and girder connections possess a limited but known moment resisting capacity.

Rigid connectionsRigid frames where connections are able to hold their original angle under loading by developing a specified resisting moment.


5.1.5 ColumnsColumns are vertical load bearing members of the structure frame which transmits beam loads down to foundations. Columns can be made of reinforced concrete or steel.

Tied ColumnsIndividual rebar ties are used to wrap completely around the vertical bars in a confined core. Lateral reinforcement restrains the vertical reinforcement and strengthens the column against buckling.

Spiral ColumnsSingle reber wrapped around the vertical bar in a spiral. They are stronger than tied columns but more labour intensive.

Whenever possible, vary required steel reinforcement rather than column size; when necessary, vary only one dimension of a column at a time.

Pouring concrete columns1. Size of columns to be marked.2. Place the reinforcement in the formwork.3. Then pour concrete in formwork, ensure all rebar is covered.4. Concrete is let to dry and cure. 5. Remove the formwork.5.1.6 Joints

Steel columnA variety of proprietary post bases is available. Post bases can also be fabricated to satisfy specific design conditions. Wood postA steel base plate is necessary to distribute the column load over an area wide enough that the allowable stresses in theconcrete are not exceeded.

Precast Concrete ColumnColumn base plate secured to column

Splice bars welded to steel angles. Steel bottom plate secured to column section with anchor bolts.16

5.2 Walls Walls are the vertical constructions of a building that enclose, separate, and protect its interior spaces. They may be load-bearing structures of homogeneous or composite construction designed to support imposed loads from floors and roofs, or consist of a framework of columns and beams with nonstructural panels attached to or filling in between them. In addition to supporting vertical loads, exterior wall constructions must be able to withstand horizontal wind loading and serve as shear walls and transfer lateral wind and seismic forces to the ground foundation.

5.2 Wall Overall AnalysisCLASSIFICATION OF WALL SYSTEMSingle Walls Systemsingle wall single layer Also called a system because this layer concrete contain other several layers concrete layer, thermal insulation, water proof layer .

Composite walls system composite walls that contain several layers of single walls to achieve the concept of integration.

Exterior walls Serve as a protective shield against the weather for the interior spaces of a building; their construction should control the passage of heat, infiltrating air, sound, moisture, and water vapor.

Advantages: Durable and resistant to the weathering effects of sun, wind, and rain.

The interior walls Acts as wall or partitions, which subdivide the space within a building, may be either structural or non-load bearing.

Advantages: Provide acoustical separation, accommodate the distribution and outlets of mechanical and electrical services.

Openings for doors and windows must be constructed so that any vertical loads from above are distributed around the openings and not transferred to the door and window units themselves. Their size and location are determined by the requirements for natural light, ventilation, view, and physical access, as well as the constraints of the structural system and modular wall materials.


5.2.1 Types of masonry wall systems 1. Running bond, Commonly used for cavity and veneer walls, is composed of overlapping stretchers.2. Common bond Has a course of headers between every five or six courses of stretchers; also known as American bond.3. Stack bond Has successive courses of stretchers with all head joints aligned vertically. Because units do not overlap, horizontal joint reinforcement is required @ 16" (405) o.c. in unreinforced walls.4. Flemish bond Has alternating headers and stretchers in each course, each header being centered above and below a stretcher. Flare headers with darker ends are often exposed in patterned brickwork.5. Flemish cross bond A modified Flemish bond in which courses of alternate headers and stretchers alternate with stretching courses.6. Flemish diagonal bond A form of Flemish cross bond in which the courses are offset to form a diamond pattern.7. Garden-wall bondUsed for lightly loaded boundary walls, has a sequence of a header and three stretchers in each course, with each header being centered over a header in alternate courses.8. English bondHas alternate courses of headers and stretchers in which the headers are centered on stretchers and the joints between stretchers line up vertically in all courses.

5.2.2 Extra structural support to openings of the wall or corner

Masonry Cavity WallTypical 2 to 3 cavityMetal ties used to bind wythes togetherReinforced masonry walls use steel reinforcing bars placed in thickened joints or cavities with a fluid grout mix of Portland cement, aggregate, and water for greater strength in carrying vertical loads and increased resistance to buckling and lateral forces. It is essential that a strong bond develop between the reinforcing steel, grout, and masonry units.Reinforcing steel bars are fully embedded in portland cement groutFor horizontal joint reinforcement, a metal ring was place onto the bricks.

Horizontal bond beam

All cells containing reinforcement are filled solidly with groutCells are aligned vertically to form a clear, continuous vertical space.Reinforcement continues down to a reinforced concrete footing.Horizontal joint reinforcementFulbed mortar at end walls and cross webs from grouted cells; Cleanouts was provided at bottom course of cells to be grouted; before grouting, it need to be inspect and seal.


Reinforced grouted masonry should conform to the requirements for plain grouted masonry.

Metal wall ties between reinforcement and masonry for fine grout cover with coarse grout.


Raked joint is made by removing mortar to a given depth with a square-edged tool before hardening.Raked joints are for interior use only.Mortar joints vary in thickness, but typically 10cm thick.Tooled joints are mortar joints compressed and shaped with any tool other than a trowel. Tooling compresses the mortar and forces it tightly against the brick surfaces, providing maximum protection against water penetration in areas subject to high winds or heavy rains.Troweled joints are finished by striking off excess mortar with a trowel. In troweled joints, the mortar is cut or struck off with a trowel. The most effective of these is the weathered joint because it sheds water.MONTAR JOINT

Reinforced Brick LintelsSteel Angle Lintels6(150) minimum bearing

Reinforcing steel fully embedded in Portland cement grout

Four to seven courses high

Lintel may be visually articulated with a soldier course.Flashing

Interior angle

Exterior angle

Concrete Masonry LintelsPrecast Concrete Lintels

Bearing on solid or grouted masonry

Lintel or bond beam block with Portland cement grout fill and reinforcing steel.Precast reinforced concrete lintels may be used to span openings in both bricks and concrete masonry walls.



5.2.3 On-site wall-brick wall analysis

The walls as seen in the double-storeys townhouse, Kota Puteri, Rawang, Selangor are brick walls, which also known as masonry walls.

The brick used are burnt clay bricks and sand lime bricks. The type of masonry binding used is running bond.

Burnt clay bricks were used to make walls in between two houses. The reason behind choosing burnt clay bricks is the properties of burnt clay bricks have good fire resistance and low heat conduction.

Therefore it can minimize damages and prevent damages spread from one house to another when fire disaster occurs. Also burnt clay bricks are more durable and suitable for structural support.

While sand lime bricks were used for other facing of the buildings walls because it has properties of smooth finish and surface for detailed and wider range of face treatments, also offers excellent strength as a load bearing member and it is cheaper compared to burnt clay bricks. But it does not have good fire resistance compare to burnt clay bricks.

As saw in the picture, the brick used for the walls that are facing outside are sand lime brick.So it provides good smooth face and gave convenient for after-treatment such as painting on the wall, or doing any beatification on the wall.

However the only problem is that sand lime brick is not fire resistance and thus it is easier to decay and need more repairing work constantly compared to burnt red brick.

As shown in the picture, the brick used for the walls between the houses are burnt red bricks. Although it does not give good appealing, smooth surface, but it is great resistance towards heat and fire.

It also have stronger compression force and structurally more stable and strong compared to sand lime brick.

So burnt clay brick is a good materials for building structural that support walls along with the columns and structural slaps.

Running bond, Commonly used for cavity and veneer walls, is composed of overlapping stretchers.20

3. Lay the Header Course. Be sure to understand how the bricks must be stacked. When stacking, every now and then hold a level against the joints to see that the bricks line up vertically. For common bond (shown here), a header course needs two 3/4 bricks and two 1/4 bricks, known as closures, at each corner. Excess mortar was scraped away as you go. Every so often, the joints were checked to see if they need to be struck.4. Build a Lead. Continue building the corner or the end of the wall, which is called a lead. A stack seven or eight bricks high was made. As going, a level was used to check that if the corner was plumbed and the courses level. A story pole was used to check joint thickness. Sliding of the bricks to adjust their position is prohibited, unless the bricks were laid within the past two minutes.

5. String a Line Between Leads. Leads were built at the other end of the wall in the same way and it was check with the story pole and level. The leads were laid in-between bricks for the bottom course of both wythes, using the pencil lines as guides. Hook masons blocks and stretch a masons line from one lead to the other at the center of a joint. The line should be taut and about 18 inch from the bricks.

6. Fill in Between the Leads. For each course, move the line blocks up one joint and use the line as a guide for the height and for the outer edge of the wall. Dont let bricks touch the line. The last brick in the middle of a course, called the closure brick, is buttered at both ends. Butter it generously and slip it in straight down. Avoid sliding it. You may need to use a striking tool to force more mortar into one joint.

7. Strike the Joints. Every 20 minutes or so, depending on weather conditions, test the joints by pressing with your thumb. If a thumbprint holds its shape, its time to strike. With a brick jointer, smooth all horizontal joints, then smooth the verticals so water will drain properly. If a bit of mortar oozes out from the jointing tool, leave it or it will smear

8. Brush and Clean. Excess mortar was brushed off once it has started to harden and appears crumbly. If the mortar smears, stop and wait a few minutes longer. Any smears may be able to wipe away with a damp sponge, but be careful not to get the joints very wet or will weaken them. Alternatively, wait a day and then clean with a mild muriatic acid solution.

5.2.4 Construction Technique of building masonry wallBefore starting to lay the bricks, all the materials needed must be prepared and make a story pole so can quickly measure bricks for the correct height. Lay a number of bricks with 38-inch spaces between them, on edge on a flat surface. Then lay a length of 1-by-2 or 1-by-4 next to the bricks and marks were drew indicating the centers of each mortar joint. Alternatively, purchase a ready-made story pole. A standard model has marks every 8 inches to indicate three courses of common brick plus the mortar joints.

1. Lay a Dry Run. Chalk lines were snapped on the footing indicating the outline of the wall. Bricks were placed on the footing in a dry run, with 38-inch dowels between them to represent the joints. Make sure to understand how the bricks will be laid out at the corner. The brick might need to be cut into half or two. With a pencil, the footing for the centers of each joint was marked.2. Lay the First Bricks. The dry-laid bricks were removed. Starting at a corner or at the end of a wall, a line of mortar was thrown for the first three bricks. The first brick was set and placed. One end of the other bricks were buttered and set. The bricks were pushed into place and see that the centers of the joints are at the pencil marks. A level was used to check that if the bricks formed an even surface in both directions. Excess mortar was scraped away. Repeat for the second layer and lay bricks for the start of an adjoining wall if started at a corner. 21

5.3 Ceiling5.3.1 IntroductionThe ceiling surface is an important functional component of a room. It helps to control the diffusion of light and sound about the room and may play a role in preventing the passage of sound vertically between the rooms above and below, and horizontally between rooms on either side of a partition. It is often designed to resist the passage of fire and must it be appropriately noncombustible. Frequently, it is called upon to assist in the distribution of conditioned air, artificial light, and electrical energy.

In many buildings, it must accommodate sprinkler heads for fire suppression and loudspeakers for intercommunication systems. And its color, texture, pattern, and shape are prominent in the overall visual impression of the room.

A ceiling can be a simple, level plane, a series of sloping planes that give a sense of the roof above, a luminous surface, a richly coffered ornamental ceiling, or even a frescoed plaster vault such as Michelangelos famous ceiling in the Sistine Chapel in Rome; the possibilities are endless.

5.3.2 Types of CeilingExposed structural and mechanical componentsIn many buildings, it makes sense to omit finished ceiling surfaces altogether and simply expose the structural and mechanical components of the floor or roof above. In industrial and agricultural buildings, where appearance is not of prime importance, this approach offers the advantages of economy and ease of access for maintenance. Many types of floor and roof structures are inherently attractive if left exposed, such as heavy timber beams and decking, concrete waffle slabs and steel trusses. Other types of structures such as concrete flat plates and precast concrete planks, have little visual interest but their undersurfaces can be painted and left exposed as finished ceilings in apartment buildings and hotels, which have little need for mechanical services at the ceiling. This saves money and reduces the overall height. In some buildings the mechanical and structural elements at the ceiling, if carefully designed, installed and painted can create a powerful aesthetic of their own. Exposing structural and mechanical components rather than covering them with a finished ceiling does not always save money. Mechanical and structural work is not normally done in a precise, attractive fashion because it is not usually expected to be visual and it is less expensive for workers to take only as much care in installation as is required for satisfactory functional performance. To achieve perfectly straight, neatly sealed ductwork that is free of dents, steel decks without rust and weld spatter, square, well organized runs of electrical conduit and plumbing, the drawings and specifications for the project must tell exactly the results that are expected and a higher labor cost must be anticipated.

1. Suspended linear metal ceilingsA suspended linear metal ceiling is made of long elements that are formed from sheet aluminum attached to a special type of concealed grid.2. Suspended fire resistance rated ceilingsSuspended ceilings that are part of a fire resistance rated floor ceiling or roof ceiling assembly made be made of gypsum board, plaster or lay in panel and grid systems that are especially designed to have the necessary resistance to the passage of fire.Penetrations in such membrane ceilings must be detailed so as to maintain the required degree of fire resistance throughout the ceiling.

1. Tightly attached ceilingsCeilings of any material may be attached tightly to wood joists, wood rafters, steel joists or concrete slabs. Special finishing arrangements must be worked out for any beams and girders that protrude through the plain of the ceiling and for ducts, conduits, pipes and sprinkler heads that fall below the ceiling.

2. Suspended ceilingsSuspended ceilingsspeaks to a ceiling which is suspended on wires some distance below the floor or roof structure that hangs level and flat despite varying sizes of girders, beams, joists, slabs above and even under a roof structure that slopes down toward roof drains. Ducts, pipes and conduit can run freely in the plenum space between the ceiling and the structure above. Lighting fixtures, sprinkler heads, loudspeakers and fire detection devices may be recessed into the ceiling. Such a ceiling can also, at additional cost, serve as membrane fire protection for the floor or roof structure above, eliminating the need for fussy individual fireproofing of steel joists or imparting a higher fire resistance rating to wood or precast concrete structures.


5.3.3 Jointless Ceiling

These forms of suspended ceilings provide a continuous and jointless surface with the internal appearance of a conventional ceiling. They may be selected to fulfil fire resistance requirements or to provide a robust form of suspended ceiling. The 2 common ways of construction are a plasterboard or expended metal lathing soffit with hand applied plaster finish or a sprayed applied rendering with a cement base

5.3.4 Skim Coating

Skim coating is a texturing technique used to make a wall smooth. Drywalls use this technique to hide an imperfect taping job, to give the wall a plaster-like appearance and in situations when only the smoothest surface will do. Skim coating is the only way to achieve a level 5 drywall finish, which a number of trade associations, including the Painting and Decorating Contractors of America, recommend for areas of bright or critical lighting.

Advantages of Jointless Ceiling1. Durable2. Sound brooding3. Easy to use just add water4. Good surface preparation and primer for painting5. Excellent adhesions to porous substrates 6.Sand easily to a smooth finish23

5.3.5 InstallationHow Ceiling Is Constructed

Step 1:

Setting the Perimeter Step 2:

Setting the Perimeter Step 3:

Setting the Perimeter Step 5:

Installing the Runners Step 4:

Setting the Perimeter Step 6:

Installing the Runners

Step 7:

Installing the Runners Step 8:

Installing the Runners Step 9:

Installing the Runners Step 10:

Installing the Runners Step 11:

Installing the Runners Step 12:

Adding Fixtures 24

InstallationHow Ceiling Is Constructed

Step 13:

Adding Fixtures Step 14:

Ductwork and Diffusers Step 15:

Ductwork and Diffusers Step 16:

Ductwork and Diffusers Step 17:

Finishing Up Step 18:

Finishing Up Step 19:

Finishing Up Step 20:

Finishing Up 25

5.4 Staircase Overall Analysis

Staircase is a construction design which basically connects a large or certain distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distance called steps. Stairs provide means for moving from one level and another therefore important links in the overall circulation scheme of a building. Whether punctuating a two-story volume or rising through a narrow shaft, a atairway takes up a significant amount of space. The landings of a stairway should be logically integrated with the structural system to avoid overly complicated framing condition.Safety and ease of travel are, in the end, the most important considerations in the design and placement of stairs.

There are different types of stairs, for instance; straight - run stair, quarter - turn stair, half - turn stair, winding stair, circular stair and spiral stair. In addition, to constrcut a staircase, a proper construction of its stairway width, landings, handrails, tread,risers, and nosings which are the requirement of constructing a staircase

Quarter Turn Stair Several different constrcution professionals may contribute to the design and layout of a stairway. An architect design the stairway to comply with building codes, fit the particular space of the building, and have an aesthetically pleasing design. Often a carpenter is called upon to lay out and build the stairway. The carpenter is responsible for working out construction details that are not specifically covered on the prints.

In some instances, a cabinetmaker or millworker takes field measurements at the job site. From these measurements, the stairway is designed, laid out, and temporarily assembled in a shop. The stairway is then disssembled and sent to the job sute where it is reassembled and installed by carpenters. 5.4 Staircase5.4.1 Introduction


5.4.2 Staircase TerminologyThe terminology used in stairway building describes the stairways and components, as well as design factors and methods of construction. Some sommon terms used in stairway design and constrcution are lading, flight, step, line of travel, riser,tread, nosing, stringer, unit rise, total rise, and total run.

A landing is a horizontal platform seperating two flights of stairs. A flight us an unbroken and continuous series of steps from one floor to another or from one floor to a landing. A step is a unit consisting of tread and one riser. A landing must be as wide as the stairway being straved and at least 36 in length. Distance between landing should not exceed 12-0 vertically.

A riser is the vertical board between treads. In certain stairways, such as open stairways, there are no risers. A tread is the horizontal walking surface of a step. The width of a tread is measured from the face of the riser to the outside edge of the nosing,

The nosing is the portion of tread that projects beyond the riser face. A stringer is the structural support of a stairway that is fabricated to receive the risers and treads. It carries the main load of the stairway can be either open or closed.

The unit rise is the height of each riser and is calculated by diving the total rise by the number of riser in a stairway. Unit riser is measured vertically from the top tread to the top of adjecent tread.

The unit run is the width of each tread. The unit run is calculated by dividing the total run by the number of treads in a stairway. Measured horizonatlly from the face of the adjecent riser. The total riser is the vertical distance(height) of a stairway from finished floor below to the finished floor above.

Stairwell HeaderCut out StringerUnit RunUnit RiseUnit RunUnit Rise plus finish floor thickness minus tread thicknessFinish Floor LineStringerCleatTreadNosingRiserTread27

Timber Stair 5.4.3 Material types

A wood stair is constructed of the following elements:

Carriages or rough stringer are the preincipal inclinaed

Beams supporting the trades and risers of flight stairs.

Tread are the footways that span the distance between The supporting carriages.

Carriages may be attached to their supporting beam, header, or wall framing with metal hangers or a ledger.

Kick plate anchors and absorbs the thurts

Figure 4 : Timber stair

Steel Stair

Steeal beam support Steel channel stringer Concrete filled steel tread Building codes require the handrail to extend beyond the top and the bottom and return to the wall.Steel tube or channel support Figure 4.1 Details of Steel StairsSteel pan landing with concrte fill Steel channel support from landing may be hung with threaded rads from the floor obstructure above, or linear directly on masonry.

Figure 4.2: Closed Riser with Full StringerFigure 4.3: Handrail of Steel Stair28

Concrete Stair

A concrete stair is designed as an inclined, one-way reinforced slab with steps formed on its upper surface. If the stair is constructed after the floor beam wall supports, it acts as a simple beam. If tt is cast with the beam slab support . Its designed as a continuous beam. Concrete strair requires careful analysis of load,span,and support conditiond.1-1/2(38) minimum concrete wall4(100) minimum mansonry wallsStair slab thickness; rule of thumb: span/26Span is equal to the horizontal distance between the slab support.Figure 5 Concrete Stair Constuction

1-1/2(38) maxmum nosing(13) maximum radius(19) Radius typical

Figure 5.1 Concrete Stairs DetailsFigure 5.2 Open Riser / Partial Open Riser StairFigure 5.3 Double storey Townhouse, Kota Puteri, RawangOpen Riser Timber Stair An open stairway that is exposed on one or both sides.

Partial -Open Riser Concrete StairA partial open stairway is a stairway that has full wall on one side and shortern wall on the other side.


5.4.4 Installation

Step 1

Calculating the Rise,Run and Dimensions of stairsThe maximum riser height for residential stairway is 7 , measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent trades. Between the largest and smallest riser heights within a given flight of stairs should not more than 3/8. The minimum tread depth for the residential stairway is 10.

Measured horizontally from the front of the nosings of adjacent treads.

Measure from the height of one floor to another. Divide the height with 7 to get the number of steps. Measure the horizontal distance if the staircase will span and measure the width of staircase from the left and right.

Step 2

Determine the Foundations Dimention

Step 3 Constructing the FormUsing framing lumber to build the form. Removing the side of the form according to the tread and riser calculation.

Step 4 Preparing Concrete and Pouring Mortar Producing well mixed mortar with a portable cement mixer. Star at the bottom and pour at a time. Make sure the mortar are spread evently.Using a spade to remove the tapped air bubbles.

Step 5 Drying ProcessSpraying the stairs wih curing compound and cover it with burlap. Then remove the lumber.


5.4.5 Stair plan

Quarter Turn Stair

A quarter turn or L shaped stair makes a right handed- angled turn in the path of travel. The two flights connected by an intervening landing may be equal or unequal, depending on the desired proporion of thestairway opening. Also called L stair.

Quarterspace landing A square landing connecting two flights of a stair. Also, quarterpace landing.

LandingA platform between flights of stairs or the floor at the foot or head of a flight of stairs

Walking LineA line 18 in(457mm) in from the centerline of handrail, along which the run of a winder is the same as a flier. Also called line of travel.

Figure 3: Quarter- Turn stair

Figure 3.2 Plan Figure 3.1: Quarter Turn Details


5.4.6 Installation II Tread and Nosings

1. Applying construction adhesiveLay three beads of adhesive on the tread. Dont put any on the space that will be covered by the nosing.2. Positioning the tread assembly.Press the glued tread assembly into place on the tread, with the tongue of the full plank facing out. Wipe off any glue that squeezes onto the top of the plank with a damp rag.3. Covering the riserMeasure the height and width of the riser space. Cut a plank to fit, cutting off the tongue in the process. Apply adhesive to the back of the cut plank. Angle the plank into place, fitting the cut side under the tread overhang of the step above. Press the riser into place.5.4.7 Skirting

4. Completing the stairsCut a tread edge piece and fit it onto the exposed tread edge.5. Filling the screw holes. Prepare the putty according to the manufacturers directions. A scrap of plank makes a smooth mixing surface. With a plastic putty knife, smoothly fill the screw holes in each nosing. Then carefully remove the tape. After about 20 minutes, even out the putty with a cloth dampened with water or acetone. Putty is usually impossible to remove once its dry, so work carefully and clean up right away.The first step when installing the mitered skirt is to determine the size of the skirt necessary for the application. The fundamental measurements include the length and the width.

You must make sure to select a piece of material that is long enough to cover the total run of the staircase. The width should be at least 9-1/2-inches wide

Lay the skirt along the top of the stringer parallel with the stringer resting on the points.

Measure the width of the skirt on the plumb.

Measure up from the floor at the bottom of the stringer. Take this distance, less 1-inch, and scribe a line level with the floor at this point32


5.4.8 Finishes

1. Spreading tile adhesive on stairs.Start tiling the stairs from top. Consequently, if the concrete floor is too dry, you should sprinkle a couple drips of water, as to make sure the tile adhesive with the floor.2. After spreading the tile adhesive on the floor by using straight side, comb it with the notched side. Spreading adhesive on a larger surface than the footprint of tiles. Spread adhesive 2 over the footprint of the ceramic tiles.3. Spreading the bed of adhesive on the stairs. Essential elements; the surface must be leveled and the adhesive layer must be on the whole surface4. Installing the tile stair nosing.5. Tap them gently by using a rubber hammer. By this way, you lock the tiles into position make them level.6. Installing the tile nosing, make sure ceramic tiles on the tread of the next stair. Installing the stair raisers, using a L square, as to make sure they are plumb.

Double storey Townhouse, Kota Puteri, Rawang 33

5.4.9 Standard Requirements

Tread and rise

Proper stairway design and construction ensure a safe stairway. Some general safety practices for stairway design and construction include the flowing;

All the risers and treads should be equal in a flight.

All stairs providing access to and within buildings should be designed to be accessible by most persons with reduced mobility.

A minimum of these risers per flight is recommended to prevent tripping and may be required by the building code.

Uniform riser and tread dimensions are required. Open riser are not permitted.

11(280) min 4(100) min; 7(180)max .LandingsAt least as wide as the stairway they serve and have minimum length equal to the stair width, measured in the direction of travel.Landing serving straight-run stairs need not be longer than 48(1200)Stairway Width Consult building code for details. 44(1120)minimum width; 36(915) minmum for stairways serving an occupant load of 49 or less.HandrailsProject a minimum of 4-1/2(115) into the required width; stringers and trim projects a maximum of 1-1/2(38). Required on both sides. 34 to 38(865 to 965) hright above the leading edge of stair treads or nosings.It should extend at least 12(305) horizontallybeyond the top riser of stair glight and extend the slope of the stair run for a horizontal distance of at least one tread depth beyond the last riser of nosing of the flight.Figure 7 Stairs34

5.5 Railings5.5.1 Types

Guard rail used on siteGuard RailGuard railings are also known as safety railing or barrier installed along horizontal surfaces such as balconies, decks or porch.

Stair RailSafety railings are located on open sides of a stairway. These stair rails provide a safe grasping surface which reduces fall injuries and act as a safety barrier in open areas that may otherwise one to fall off one side of the stairs.Advantages/Disadvantages of Horizontal Railings over Vertical BalustersAdvantages:Cheaper: -Horizontal blusters cost less than vertical ones -Lesser materials required -Fewer connections, reduce fasteners and hardware neededEasier to install : -Less labour intensiveVersatile : -Allow for any material to be used -Flexibility in design -Vertical railings incompatible with materials such as cable of fiberglassHigher Privacy : -Horizontal railings interrupt vision

Disadvantages:Safety issues : -Climbing hazard for horizontal railings -Ladder-like structure presents climbing opportunity for childrenHigh maintenance (for outdoor and indoor guardrails) -Longer lengths for material for horizontal rails -Replacement of entire length should rail be damaged or worn out -Vertical rails cheaper to replace since they are shorter -More effort/time to replace horizontal railingsShorter durability (for outdoor railings) -Horizontal railings more prone to damage by water and sun -Water doesnt run off as quickly -Deteriorates faster -Rails may wrap, crack, rot, corrode, ruse faster than vertical rails

Stair rail and guard rail with horizontal balusters Stair rail with vertical balusters35

5.5.2 Construction TechniqueStair rails construction methodsStep 1Step 2Step 3Step 4Step 5Step 6Once the framework for the staircase is set and once the concrete bricks are laid to form the concrete railings alongside the staircase .L-shaped steel bars are placed at the corners at the end of each stair rail to ensure a perpendicular edge once the edge is plastered. Cement is then used to cover the top bricks to ensure a smooth sloping surface for the railing to be placed on.In this case there is a slight indentation at the top of the concrete rail to provide a better grip for the home owner . An L-shaped PVC is used as a framework to define where the concrete should be casted. Concrete railing is plastered. Timber handrail is secured to the top of the cemented concrete blocks with some form of adhesive.

Railing construction on siteStandard Method (Timber/Metal)Step 1Step 2Step 3Step 4Determine height of starting newels handrail attached to post balustrades after a pre-determined length.Install landing newel on riser.Vertical intersections should be marked to attach the railings on posts and balustrades.Bottom railing drilled to fix balusters.Outdoor Guard Rails1.Materials are obtained pre-fabricated from factory2.Balusters and posts are welded together3.Top handrail is most often of the same material with the posts and balusters which is either steel or iron4.Usually finished with multiples coats paint to increase weather resistance and tolerance5.These guard rails are usually used for outdoor balconies or for air conditioning casements


5.5.3 Safety IssuesGuard RailsGuard rails are necessary to protect open sides of stairwaysGuard rails should be at least 36 (915mm)Guard rails may have the same heights as stair handrailsGuard rails should be able to withstand a concentrated load applied to the top hand railsRegardless of horizontal or vertical balustrade arrangement

Stair Rails34 to 38 height above the leading edge of the stair treads or nosingHandrails should be continuous without any obstructionsHandrails should be free of sharp or abrasive elements and have a circular-like-cross-sectionTo ensure adequate grasp ability1-1/2 (38mm) minimum clearance between hand rail and wall

Stair rail

Illustrate the depression in each handrail that would enhance graspability and how a handrail with inadequate graspability is not desiredA stair rail/s can be installed on the wall at the same height as the existing banister

If stair rails cannot be attached to the wall with wall brackets then vertical stair rail supports can be usedNewel rails can be fitted to newel posts37

5.6 Floor System Overall Analysis5.6.1 IntroductionFloor system which is consider as a type of horizontal planes are important as it supports people, furnishings, and movable equipment. Floor systems must transfer their loads horizontally across space to either beams and columns or to loadbearing walls.Floor system are made up of a series of linear beams and joist overlaid with a plane of sheathing or decking, or consist of a nearly homogenous slab of reinforced concrete.

5.6.2 Floor TypesConcrete Precast concrete planks may be supported by beams or loadbearing walls.Advantages: Durability, Stiffness, damp resistanceDisadvantages: Defects hard to rectify

Rely on the ground beneath them for their supportUses a composite of concrete and structural steel to support the design loadFormed from a minimum of 150mm thick reinforced concreteAct as a monolithic unit with foundationResting on a bed of 150mm minimum thick hard core100mm slab thicknessDoes not carry superstructure loadsEntire slab area support the superstructure loads

SuperstructureSlabIsolation jointIndependent FoundationGround-supported Slab

Structurally-reinforced Slab

5.6.3 Types of Concrete Ground SlabWood Wood beams support structural planking or decking. Beams may be supported by girders, posts, orloadbearing walls. Underside of floor structure may be left exposed; anapplied ceiling is optional. Subflooring, underlayment, and applied ceilingfinishes have relatively short spans.Advantages: cost less, faster constructionDisadvantages: cost more

Steel Steel beams support steel deckingor precast concrete planks. Beam framing is typically an integral part of a steel skeleton frame system. Steel decking have relatively short spans.Advantages: Fire resistance, AestheticsDisadvantages: steel beams carry their own weight only.


5.6.4 Concrete Slab Overall AnalysisConcrete slabs are similar to beams in the way they span horizontally between supports and may be simply supported, continuously supported or cantilevered. Slabs are constructed of reinforced concrete poured into formwork on-site or into trenches excavated into the ground. Concrete slabs are usually 150 to 300 mm deep. Slabs transmit the applied floor or roof loads to their supports. Slabs may be divided into ground slab and floor slab.

Ground-supported SlabStructurally-reinforced SlabOne-Way SystemTwo Way SystemOne-way Ribbed SlabOne-Way SlabTwo-way Flat PlateTwo-way Flat SlabTwo-way Waffle SlabTwo-way Waffle Slab & BeamConcrete Ground SlabReinforced Concrete Floor SystemSlab


5.6.5 Slab used on site Ground Slab (Structurally-reinforced slab)

Process of construction1. Prepare the ground

2. Fix the formwork

3. Install service pipe

4. Install reinforcement bar

5. Place and compact concrete 6. Cure the concrete slab

Section of Solid Floor on level siteBedding of internal floor tiles1. Provide a level surface with sufficient strength to support the impose loads of people and furniture.2. Exclude the passage of water and water vapour to the interior of the building.3. Provide resistance to unacceptable heat loss through the floor.4. Provide the correct type of surface to receive the chosen finish.

Damp-proof course (dpc) or damp-proof membrane (dpm) is to provide an impermeable barrier to the passage of moisture.1. Resist moisture penetration from below (rising damp).2. Resist moisture penetration from above.3. Resist moisture penetration from horizontal entry.


5.6.6 Reinforce Concrete Floor System

Reinforced Concrete Floor System is divided into one way system and two way system.

One-way SystemTwo-way SystemOne way slab is supported on two opposite side only thus structural action is only at one direction. Total load is carried in the direction perpendicular to the supporting beam. If a slab is supported on all the four sides but the ratio of longer span (l) to shorten span (b) is greater than 2, then the slab will be considered as one way slab.Two way slabs are the slabs that are supported on four sides andthe ratio of longer span (l) to shorter span (b) is less than 2. In two way slabs, load will be carried in both the directions. So, main reinforcement is provided in both directions for two way slabs.

One Way SlabTwo Way Flat PlateOne Way Ribbed Slab

Two Way Flat Slab with Drop PanelsTwo-way Joist Slab (Waffle)

One way slab is supported by beams in only 2 sides.Two way slab is supported by beams in all four sides.

The ratio of longer span panel (L) to shorter span panel (B) is equal or greater than 2. Thus, L/B >= 2The ratio of longer span panel (L) to shorter span panel (B) is less than 2. Thus, L/B < 2.Main reinforcement is provided in only one direction for one way slabs.Main reinforcement is provided in both the direction for two way slabs.


Two way flat plate

A flat plate is a one or two-way system usually supported directly on columns or loadbearing walls. It is one of the most common forms of construction of floors in buildings. The principal feature of the flat plate floor is a uniform or near-uniform thickness with a flat soffit which requires only simple formwork and is easy to construct. The floor allows great flexibility for locating horizontal services above a suspended ceiling or in a bulkhead.

Tensile Reinforcement6 to 12 (150 to 305) typical slab depth rule of thumb for slab depth: span/36

Column capital may be used in place of or in conjunction witha drop panel for increased shear resistance.Suitable for relatively heavy loads and spans from20' to 40' (6 to 12 m)Slab used on site- Floor Slab (Two Way Flat Plate)Floor Slab construction steps & techniqueStep 1: The substructure and ground floor such as foundations, stumps, and ground floor beam) and columns in between ground floor and first floor have been cast.Step 2: Props are erected to promote lodgers, which support the formworks of beams.Step 3: Beams are supported by lodgers.Step 4: Plywood make up the formwork for beams.Step 5: Props erected for slab frameworks.Step 6: Beams are supported by lodgers.Step 7: Plywood decking.Step 8: Reinforcement cages for beams are placed.Step 9: ConcretingStep 10: Concrete hardened, frameworks are dismantled and concrete achieve sufficient strength.

Vacuum dewateringUse to shorten the time delay between tamping the concrete and power floating the surface. This strategy is suitable for slabs up to 300mm thick and should be applied about 3 minutes for every 25mm depth of concrete which allow power floating to take place within 20 to 30 minutes of tamping operation. The applied vacuum forces out the surplus water by compressing the slab and causes a reduction in slab depth of approximately 2% therefore packing strips should be placed on the side forms before tamping to allow for sufficient surcharge of concrete.


Reinforced concrete is a combination of traditional cement concrete with reinforcements (Steel bar). This combination is made to utilize the compressive strength of concrete and tensile strength of steel simultaneously.In reinforced concrete, the components works together to resist many types of loading. Concrete resists compression and steel reinforcement resists tension forces.The floor whose topping consists of cement concrete is called cement concrete floor or conglomerate floor. These floors consist of 2.5 cm to 5cm thick concrete layer laid over 10 cm thick base concrete and 10 cm thick clean sand over ground whose compaction and consolidation is done.

Advantages ofconcrete floors:1. They are hard & durable2. Provide a smooth & non-absorbent surface3. Fire resistant4. Provide more sanitary surface as they can be cleaned & washed easily.5. Economical as they require negligible maintenance cost6. Can be finished with a pleasing appearance.

Disadvantages of concrete floors:1. Tensile strength to compressive strength ratio2. Shrinkage3. High form coast4. Larger column section5. Uncertainty of final strength

Materials Used on SiteAdvantages of quartzite tile1.Easy maintenancefloor should be swept regularly if you have a spill or stain.

2. Design flexibilitycomes in varying sizes choices colour choices available most versatile and designer friendly can be installed in nearly any applicationcan be installed over most subfloors with the proper underlayment.

3. Cost effectiveone of the most cost effective surfaces on the marketdoes not require refinishing, resurfacing, re-glazing, or re-coating. ceramic tile and natural stone can increase the value of your home, helping you recoup the initial cost invested in the product.

4. Good for allergy and asthma sufferersEasy to clean and allergen free.

Cement concrete floor

Quartzite is a very hard metamorphic rock that originated as sandstone. Through a process of high heating and pressurization, sandstone is transformed into Quartzite which is an extremely hard and durable natural stone. Quartzite tiles often have a wondrous sparkling texture as individual quartz pieces recrystallize in high heat. Its incredible strength makes it ideal for flooring applications. Quartzite tiles are easy to maintain and are an environmentally conscious flooring option.5.6.7 Materials on site43

6.0 ROOFRoof is the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather, notably rain or snow, but also heat, wind and sunlight. The word also denotes the framing or structure which supports that covering.

6.1 Roof Types:For the roof types, for the top floor is composed of pitched steel roof trusses and reinforced concrete flat roof act as a shelter for the car park.

6.1.1 Reinforced Concrete Flat Roof

i) Roof platform which is horizontal or inclined up to 10degrees (to prevent ponding)Ii ) Surrounded by fascia/parapet wall

Method of construction:Step 1: Reinforced concrete roof is constructed from reinforced concrete with reinforcement in both directions. Step 2: Main reinforcement spans in direction of main roof span. Step 3: After that, it's the distribution of reinforcement spans across the main reinforcement. Step 4: The Main bar is bent at ends to provide key to obtain maximum connection between reinforcement bar and concrete.Step 5: Loading width of wall/column is 100mm. Flat roof slab thickness is 150mm minimum.

Flat Roof Finishes:

i)Flat roof is finished after the required gradient


View more >