Throwing Athlete

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Throwing mechanics and associated upper extremity pathologies

Text of Throwing Athlete

  • 1. The Throwing Athlete Prevention & Care of Athletic Injuries KNR 199

2. Throwing Motion

  • Includes:
    • Wind-up
    • Early cocking
    • Late cocking
    • Acceleration
    • Deceleration & follow through

3. Wind-Up

  • Establishes rhythm
  • Positions segments of body to contribute to forward propulsion of ball

4. Early Cocking

  • Shoulder
    • 90 abduction (ABD)
    • 30 horizontal ABD
    • 90-120 ER
  • Elbow 90 flexion
  • Wrist neutral

5. Late Cocking

  • Trunk rotates forward
  • Scapula retracts
  • Shoulder
    • 90 ABD
    • Neutral horizontal ABD
    • 160 ER
  • Elbow 90 flexion
  • Wrist slightly extended
  • Lead leg rotated toward target

6. Acceleration

  • Scapula protracts
  • Shoulder
    • Internally rotates
    • Horizontally adducts
  • Elbow extends
  • Forearm pronates
  • Wrist flexes

7. Acceleration

  • Occurs in 0.05 seconds
  • Peak angular velocity
    • Shoulder: 6000/sec
    • Elbow: 2300-4500/sec

8. Deceleration & Follow Through

  • Shoulder continues to IR & horiz ADD
  • Elbow flexes
  • Body moves forward

9. Warning Signs: Upper Extremity

  • Contralateral elbow is used as sight
  • Throwing arm trails
  • Werner et al, 2001

10. Warning Signs: Lower Extremity

  • Decreased torso & hip rotation ROM
  • Decreased trunk & hip rotation strength

11. Throwing Athletes ROM 12. Total Arc of Motion

  • Healthy throwers have 180

180 ER IR 13. Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit (GIRD)

  • Difference in internal rotation of dominant arm compared to non-dominant arm

14. Humeral Retroversion

  • Adaptive change of bony architecture
    • Acute angle in medial & posterior direction between axis of elbow joint & axis through center of humeral head

Pieper, 1998 15. Doyle & Burks, 1998 16. Soft-Tissue Adaptations

  • Tight posterior IGHL
    • Shift in GH contact point

17. Additional Resources

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oegAQ9__a2g
  • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2324033820881485235&q=pitching+mechanics
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XjVbEPfQKag