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THE INDIVIDUAL Factors Influencing Work Behaviour

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This presentation discusses the factors which influence individual behaviour at work.

Text of The Individual

  • THE INDIVIDUALFactors Influencing Work Behaviour

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    Learning Objective

    I. Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work.

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    To achieve a pass in LO1.3, we must discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work.

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    The human being is the most studied subject. Yet still least understood.

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    human behaviour atAn area that continues to attract attention is

    WORK .Picture source: green-mission.info

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    work behaviour.An individual

    ?

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    Meet Cheery. She takes

    pride in her work.

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    Why does she take pride inher work? Why others dont?

    10 minutes

    List as many reasons.

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    Jim and Kim are just coming out froma meeting chaired by their line manager.

    What a waste of my time! Wow. What a great manager!

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    List as many factors that couldaccount for the difference in opinion held by

    Jim and Kim towards their line manager.

    10 minutes

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    There are many factors that influencean individual work behaviour. All of which

    cannot be covered in this session.These factors are grouped into three major influences

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    Personal Influences.

    Organisational Influences.

    Situational Influences.

    Factors InfluencingIndividual Work Behaviour

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    Personal Influences

    Our physical and psychological make-up, and desires affect what we do and how we act; and explain why we act the way we act at work. Personal influences include

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    Age Gender Abilities Motivations Perception Personality

    MoodsAttitude

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    Young Individuals Less Younger Individuals

    Less experienced Highly experienced

    New skills and knowledge Have some obsolete skills and knowledge

    Seek to disrupt the status-quo Seek to preserve the status-quo

    Seek to embrace new work technologies Seek to embrace routine work systems

    Rely on the experience of the old Rely on the novelty of the young

    A simplified comparison howage influences work behaviour.

    Age

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    Jim and Kim are just coming out froma meeting chaired by their line manager.

    What a waste of my time! Wow. What a great manager!

    Gender

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    Compassion.Multi-tasking.

    Communication.Physical strength.Decision-making.Career choices.

    Risk-taking.Perception.

    Etc.

    Areas of Gender Differences at Work

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    Beware of gender stereotypes at work.

    10 minutes

    Any examples?

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    Education.

    Knowledge.

    Skills.

    Physical qualities.

    Experience.

    Ability comprises

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    Source: usainbolt.com

    The science behind Usain Bolts sprinting superiority.www.popsci.com/science/article/2012-08/video-superhuman-biomechanics-behind-usain-bolt

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    Needs | Goals | Expectations of the individual.

    Motivation

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    1. Physiological

    2. Safety

    3. Social

    4. Esteem

    5. Self-Actualisation

    Food, Sex, Sleep,

    Safety, security, protection

    Affection, Affiliation, Belonging, Be Accepted

    Respect,recognition,

    status

    Ultimateaspirations

    & potentials

    Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Theory

    Maslow, A. (1943), A Theory of Human Motivation by Abraham Maslow. Psychological Review, vol. 50, NO. 4, pp. 370-396

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    Why do we work? Why do we avoid work? Why our work motivation is hardly stable? Do managers understand why we (avoid) work?

    20 minutes

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    Personality

    A set of enduring, observableand unobservable qualities that influence how a person looks,

    feels, thinks and behaves. Hellriegel, G. and John, W. S. (2011), Organisational Behavior. 13th edition, Cengage Learning: Mason,. p. 70

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    Who am I?

    Picture source: Riona 2013

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    Often used methods ofdetermining ones personality

    are traits and types.

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    Traits MethodAccording to personality trait theory, there arefive major traits that underlie human personality.

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    Big Five Personality Traits

    Extraversion.

    Conscientiousness.

    Openness to new experience.

    Agreeableness.

    Neuroticism/Emotional stability.

    Mullins, L. J. (2010), "Management and Organisational Behaviour". 9th edition, Prentice Hall: Harlow,. p. 133

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    Use the mnemonicOCEANto remember theBig Five personality traits: Openness, Conscientiousness,

    Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism.

  • 2014 Berlin Asong. All rights reserved. 30Source: Costa, P. T & McCrae, R. Big Five Personality Traits

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    Extraversion 20%Conscientiousness 40%Openness to new experience 98%Agreeableness 70%Neuroticism 42%

    Cilias Big Fiver personality test score.

    Picture source: kellymartinspeaks.co.uk

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    What sort of role or profession is the best fit for Cilia? How would youexpect Cilia to behave in a teamwork environment? Assuming Cilia holds amanagement position, what could be her major strength and weaknessbased on her Big 5 personality test score?

    15 minutes

    To complete this exercise, you need to know the meanings of each of the five personality traits. See slide 29 or 30.

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    Extraversion 99%Conscientiousness 70%Openness to new experience 65%Agreeableness 40%

    Neuroticism 50%

    Dinos Big Fiver personality test score.

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    Amongst the tools you are using in deciding the best candidate for the postof Events Manager is the Big Five personality trait test. Base on thepersonality test scores of Cilia and Dino; which of the two candidateswould you hire. Justify your answer.

    15 minutes

    To complete this exercise, you need to know the meanings of each of the five personality traits. See slide 29 or 30.

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    Type MethodAccording to personality type theory,there are 16 discrete personality types.

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    ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ

    ISTP ISFP INFP INTP

    ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP

    ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ

    Myers-Briggs 16 Personality Types

    Mullins, L. J. (2010), "Management and Organisational Behaviour". 9th edition, Prentice Hall: Harlow,. p. 136

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    Click slide to access description of 16 personality types. Internet connection is required.

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    Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

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    Attitude is an opinion or judgement held byan individual towards a person or object.

    Attitude

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    Do you like your job? What aspects about your jobdo (dont) you like? Do you identify yourself with members of

    your organisation? Are you proud of your organisation?

    20 minutes

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    What do you think of your boss? Competent? Lazy?Vulnerable? Hardworking? Pleasant? Does the opinion you hold

    about your boss influence your behaviour towards them?

    20 minutes

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    An individuals attitude is formed through direct andindirect experiences, imagination and personal beliefs.

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    Perception describes how a person selects,organises, and interprets input from their senses

    to make meaning of the world around them.

    Perception

    Hellriegel, G. and John, W. S. (2011), Organisational Behavior. 13th edition, Cengage Learning: Mason,. p. 104

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    Stimuli Response

    How the individual processesinformation determines the response.

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    Individuals are susceptible to perceptual errors like stereotyping, selective distortion, selective attention, self-

    fulfilling prophecy, attribution bias, etc. For example

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    Premier League Referee Sian Massey

    Source: politiken.dk

    Sky sport commentators, Andy Gray & Richard Keys sacked for making sexist comments about Ms. Massey & female referees.

    Women [dont] know the offside rule.

    2010

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    Half-full or half-empty?

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    Created by and courtesy of Dr. Akiyoshi Kitaoka, Ritsumeikan University

    Are these objects rotating or static?

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    "What" do you see?

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    "What" do you see?

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    You have four referral grades. Whydid you perform poorly in your exams?Some individuals would attribute their underachievement to

    external factors rather to their own making. Attribution bias

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    Wow. You passed your exams inflying coloursfive distinctions. Explain

    the reasons for your success?Some individuals would attribute their achievementsolely to their own making. Attribution bias

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    Factors affecting Perception

    Perceiver

    Perceived objectContext

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    Have you been in a situation at work where colleagues perceivedan issue differently from you? Or a problem to which your colleagues

    interpretation is completely different from yours? What could have accounted for the difference in interpretation or perspective?

    20 minutes

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    Organisational Influences

    These are factors outside the individual but inside the organisation that affect how a person acts, feels and thinks at work.

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    Teams.

    Leadership.

    Organisational culture.

    Organisational structure.

    Interpersonal relationships.

    Physical workplace design.

    Job characteristics.

    Organisational Influences

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    What does the job entail?

    What tools & knowledge are required to do the job?Where and when would the job be carried out?

    With whom would I be doing the job?

    Are responsibilities and accountabilities clearly defined?

    How would performance on the job be assessed?

    Would job performance lead to valuable rewards?

    Does the job make effective use of my skills?

    How does the job affect other jobs in the organisation?

    Is the job routine or dynamic?

    What unexpected issues could affect the job?

    Etc.

    Job Characteristics &Impact on Individuals Behaviour

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    Situational Influences

    These are factors outside the organisation that affect peoples

    behaviour at work.

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    Weather conditionsPicture source: forwallpaper.com

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    PESTEL Forces

    National values & norms with regards to work; work-life balance.

    Depressing & uncertain economic climate, redundancy, pay-cut on

    employee moral & outlook.

    Effect of new work technologies & workplace

    design on employees

    Effect of green issues &workplace design on employees.

    Changes in employmentlaws, employee rights.

    Political risks & governmental policies on economic, social & legal matters

    that directly/indirectly affect employees.

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    Organisationalinfluences

    Situational influences

    Personalinfluences

    Source: ealingreflexology.co.uk

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    NEXT CLASSCompare the effectiveness of differentleadership styles in different organisations.

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