of 22 /22
- By Sundarrajan M [email protected] om Based on Shank and Govindarajan’s “Strategic Cost Management”: The New Tool for Competitive Advantage

Strategic Cost Management

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


This is a small research work on Shank and Govindrajan's SCM

Text of Strategic Cost Management

Strategic Cost Management

- BySundarrajan [email protected]

Based onShank and Govindarajans Strategic Cost Management: The New Tool for Competitive Advantage

Traditionally viewed as a process of assessing the financial impact of alternative managerial decisionsEstablishes budget and actual cost of operations, processes, departments or product and the analysis of variances, profitability or social use of fundsImportant tool used is variance analysis to show the variation b/w actual cost and standard costs volume variationMaterial cost variationLabor cost variationLimitations felt in using variance analysisWhy costs were different from what was planned?Lack of integration with organizational goal

Cost analysis in terms of products, customers and functionsStrongly internal focusBasic objective in identifying the cost is Score keeping (recording and compliance of the profession)Attention directing Problem solvingCost is assumed as a function of output volume (variable cost, fixed cost and mixed cost)Standard cost system with normal allowance for scrap, waste, rework; zero defect standard is not practical.Overhead variance analysis; maximize production volume (not quality) to absorb overhead.Variance analysis on raw material price; procedure from multiple suppliers to avoid unfavorable price variance; low price/low- quality raw materialsNo emphasis on nonfinancial performance measure

It is cost analysis in a broader context, where the strategic elements become more conscious, explicit, and formalCost data is used to develop superior strategies in route to gaining sustainable competitive advantageSCM gives a clear understanding of the firms cost structure in search of sustainable competitive advantage SCM is the managerial use of cost information explicitly directed at one or more of the four stages (strategy formulation, communicating the strategy, implementing and controlling) of strategic management

Overall recognition of the cost relationships among the activities in the value chain, and the process of managing those cost relationships to a firm's advantage

My team has created a very innovative solution, but were still looking for a problem to go with it.Problems identified: We have solutions, but we have a problem in fitting the correct solution Lack of integration with the system and the synchronization with central theme of the Organization / Project

Cost analysis in terms of overall value chain of which the firm is a part Strongly external focusThe design of cost management systems changes dramatically depending on the basic strategic positioning of the firmCost leadership or Product differentiationCost is a function of strategic choice about the structure of how to compete and managerial skill in executing the strategic choicesStructural cost drivers andExecutional cost drivers

Strategic cost management is a blend of Value chain analysis (how we organize our thinking about cost management?)Strategic positioning analysis (what role does cost management play in the firm?)Cost driver analysis

Organize our thinking about cost managementA Systematic approach to examining the development of competitive advantageThe chain consists of a series of activities that create and build valueThey culminate in the total value delivered by an organizationHelps to determine which type of competitive advantage to pursue, and how to pursue itValue is referred to as the price that the customer is willing to pay for a certain offering

External focus perspective, linked with activities from raw material suppliers to ultimate end userMultiple cost driver conceptStructural drivers (scale, scope, experience, technology, complexity)Executional drivers (participative management, TQM)Cost containment is a function of the cost drivers regulating each value activityExploiting linkages with suppliers, customers and process within the firmInsights for strategic decision by identifying the cost drivers at the individual activity level Develop drivers by controlling those drivers better than competitors or by reconfiguration of value chainQuantify and asses stake holders power and exploit the linkages

Source: Adopted from Porter's 5 force model (Competitive Advantage (1980).

Depends on the firms idea, how to compete?Cost leadershipProduct differentiationCost leadership Mature marketCommodity businessTarget costProduct differentiationMarket drivenRapidly growing marketFast changing businessEffective control system should be implemented to monitor the cost

Primary Strategic EmphasisProduct DifferentiationCost LeadershipRole of product cost in assessing performanceNot very importantVery importantImportance of flexible budgeting for cost controlModerate to LowHigh to very highPerceived importance of meeting budgetsModerate to LowHigh to very highImportance of marketing cost analysisCritical to successNot done on formal basisImportance of product cost as an input to pricing decisionLowHighImportance of competitor cost analysisLowHigh

Third key to strategic cost managementOutput cost is seen to capture very little of the richness of the cost behaviorCost drivers in SCM can be classified asStructural driversExecutional driversStructural cost drives the product cost of the organizationScale: how big an investment to make in manufacturing, R&D, and in marketing resources?Scope: Degree if vertical integrationExperience: how many times in the past the firm has already done what it is doing again?Technology: what process technologies are used at each step of the firms value chain? Complexity: how wise a line or products of services to offer to customers? (usage of ABC)

Executional cost determines the firms cost position to execute the strategy successfullyThese cost drivers are scaled with the performanceBasic executional driversWork force involvement (participation) workforce commitment to continual improvementTQM, Capacity utilization, Plan layout efficiency and Product configurationFor strategic analysis, volume is usually not the most useful way to explain cost behaviorIn a strategic sense, it is more useful to explain cost position in terms of the structural choices about executional skills that shape the firms competitive positionNot all the strategic drivers are equally important all the time, but some of them are very important in every caseFor each driver there is a particular cost analysis frame work that is critical to understanding the positioning of a firm

ToolsNatureValue chain analysisAdd value to customers reducing costs, and understanding relation between business organization and booth customersActivity based Costing (ABC)To provide accuracy in allocating indirect costs.Competitive Advantage AnalysisDefining strategy that an organization could adopt to excel over rivalsTarget costing Cost that an organization is willing to incur according to competitive price that could be used to achieve desired profitTotal quality management (TQM)Adopt necessary polices and procedures to met customers expectationsJust-in-time (JIT)A comprehensive system to buy materials or produce commodities when needed in appropriate timeSWOT analysis Systematic procedure to identify critical success factors of an organizationBenchmarking Process performed to determine critical success factor and study ideal procedures of other organization in order to improve operations and dominate marketBalanced scorecardAccounting report of critical success factors about the organization. It is divided into four major dimensions: financial performance, customers satisfaction, internal operation, and innovation and Growth

ToolsNatureTheory of ConstraintsA tool to improve rate of transferring material into finished goodsContinuous improvement (Kaizen)Conducting continuous improvements in quality and other critical success factors

A firm can create a cost advantage by 2 waysReducing the cost of individual value chain activitiesReconfiguring the value chain

Some of the tools used to find cost in value analysis areLifecycle costing Supply chain managementReturn on AssetDiscounted cash flow analysis

Products costs over its entire lifetime when deciding whether to introduce a new productNot all products will follow this patternSome products will fail early and have a truncated life cycle 5 Stages in product life cycleProduct development and planningIntroduction phaseGrowth phaseProduct maturity phaseProduct decline and abandonment phase

Send your feedbacks to: [email protected]