Click here to load reader

Pdf Oppgave 3

  • View
    417

  • Download
    3

Embed Size (px)

Text of Pdf Oppgave 3

  • The boundaries between sea and land is constantly changing.

    Claiming land from the sea for new development. To meet the need for additonal housing, industrial areas and recreational spaces.

    200019401860expansion of Malm

  • Nearly 1500 hectares of shallow areas have been lled out during this time andno more a 35% of the original meadows exist along the coast.

    City of Malm has a long border with resund. Roughly the citys coastline are almost 2 mil long.

    Basically hele water front today consists of infill lots after conquering ov shallow water areas during the past 150 years.

    Malm

    The dark gray on the map are artificial soil.

    The city has slipped further and further away from the sea.

    The Western Harbour is currently being transformed from an industrial areainto a complete urban quarter with accommodation, services, workplacesand educational facilities.

    The expansion of the port outside of Malmo's most central parts, have made that the city is moving farther and farther away from the sea. When the port grows on land llings out to sea, the city has went itself against the available land further inland.Immediate contact with the sea has been broken. This division of the city is manly the reason that Malm is perceived as a inland city as much as a port city.

    A walk through Malm waterside areas, I discovered that the buildings in most places have very little direct contact with water. Access to the sea is limited at times both visually and physically, which has the eect that the city experienced as separate from the resund

    219 ha = 2 190 000 m2

    Western Harbour

    To transform the urban water fronts is now a internationelt phenomenon. It startet in late1950 with the planning of disused industrial and port areas.

    The biggest reason is that new technology has resulted in a change of shipping organizations worldwide, while the urban port facilities have been concentrated on more rational positions. The traditional port dependent industry and shipbuilding have declined considerably, which has the consequence that a large, attractive areas, often in very central locations has been transformed into new residential mixd uses.

    Filling has occurred in stages and the new areas are used primarily for port, industrial and recreation.

  • Bergen MalmScale

    3000 mca 7 millioner m2.

    Utfylling av vestre havnen: 219 ha = 2 190 000 m2

    Utfylling av Dokken:ca 200 000 m2

    219 ha i Bergen.

    Vestre Havnen2 190 000 m2

    Vestre havnens areal utfylt i Bergen

  • New York Manhattan (density 10,606/km2) Amsterdam Borneo (Amsterdam density 4,459)

    Paris 105 km2

    New York 833

    Tokyo 2187 km2

    London 1597

    Malm 71 km2

    Urban density

    3,596 km2

    24,400 /km ?

    4,761/km2

    13,416 /km

    10,606/km2

    Paris (density 24,400 /km ? Tokyo (density 13,416 /km)

    Area

    Comparison of Land Use:Tokyo

    Manhattan

    London

    Paris Malm

    Open areasHousing RoadsRoads/transportation facilities

    Others

  • How does the expansion / lling eect the biotop of resund?

    resunds situation today:

    resund summer 2007

    The Baltic Sea is one of the most unique marine ecosystems in the world. Not only is the Baltic Sea home to rich levels of biodiversity and wildlife, but it sustains the livelihoods and economies of millions of people in the nine coastal countries who also call the Baltic Sea region home.

    The B

    altic s

    ea

    Most people now connect eutrophication with the yearly algal blooms that we are now used to seeing each summer.

    The Baltic Sea, however, has paid a heavy price from decades of human activity in and around the sea -over-fishing, irresponsible shipping practices, physical exploitation and the pressures from agriculture and industry continue to negatively impact its sensitive environment.

    As a result, the Baltic is now one of the most threatened marine ecosystems on the planet.

    We see them as a greenish, yellowish, brownish or reddish layer on the sea surfaceor as a thick soup in the water.

    The main reason why fish and other aquatic animals die in the wake of a bloom is the shortage of oxygenthat arises when large masses of algae decompose.

  • Eutrophication it is a process where bodies of water, such as lakes, estuaries, or slow-moving streams, receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth.

    This enhanced plant growth, often called an algal bloom, reduces dissolved oxygen in the water. This affects the ecosystem and might change it totally. About 80% of all nutrients in the sea come from land-based activities,including sewage, industrial and municipal waste and agricultural run-off.The rest is mainly from nitrous gasses, emitted when burning fossil fuels,from traffic, industry, power generation and heating.

    Global warming is also stimulating eutrophication as higher temperatures in the Baltic Sea region increases the decomposition rates of the algae, compounding the effects of the nutrients.Agriculture is one of the main economic activities in the Baltic Sea region.Almost 25% of the 1.7 million sq km drainage area around the sea is used for agricultural cultivation, with millions of people engaged in farming.

    The loss of ecological functions on land the nutrient retention capacity of wetlands, floodplains, coastal lagoons and free-flowing rivers has added substantially to the eutrophication problem. Up to 90% of wetlands in the southern part of the Baltic Sea region have been drained over the past century.

    The nutrients make it easier for algal blooms to occur and when such algae die off, they use oxygen to decompose. If too much oxygen is used up, marine life cannot survive there.

    The extensive industrialisation of farming in Western Europe during the 1960s and 1970s, farms began using artificial fertilisers to increase yields. This meant an increase in the amount of nutrients particularly phosphorus and nitrogenput into the system, creating a large nutrient surplus.

    a dead zone.

  • Western harbour, a summer day

    height above water

    1 - 2 meters

    2 - 3 meters

    3 -4 meters

    Waterfronts

    Malms new waterfront of a sea rise of 2 meters.

    Blooming blue_green algae in resund 2007

    The effectWHAT TO DO IF AN ALGAL BLOOM OCCURS

    Keep pets and livestock away from affected shores and waters.

    Fish, birds and mammals can all be killed by algal toxins.

    What could bee the effect for Wester Harbour if the pollution and the global warming continues on:

    s #1.pdfs #2s #3s #4s #5s #6s #7

Search related