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  2. 2. CONTENT History of OCB What is OCB ? The Benefits of OCB Types of OCB Article Analysis Example Conclusion References
  3. 3. History of OCB Dennis Organ is generally considered the father of OCB Dennis Organ expanded upon Katzs(1964) original work on OCB Dennis Organs (1988) definition of OCB has generated a great deal of critisim
  4. 4. What is OCB ? Organizational citizenship behavior is the technical psychological term for what can be simply defined as the compilation of individual behaviors in a group setting. It was first defined by Dennis Organ in 1988 as "an individual behavior which is not rewarded by a formal reward system ... but that, when combined with the same behavior in a group, results in effectiveness." In the business world, organizational citizenship behavior has been linked to work productivity, employee effectiveness, and other factors which can impact a business in the short or long
  5. 5. What is OCB ? Common examples of business organizational citizenship behavior occur when employees are grouped together, which may occur on a regular basis or a part of a special or temporary assignment. For example, employees in the marketing department will display organizational citizenship behavior on a regular basis because of they are co-workers in the same department; employees who are put together for a temporary work assignment will also display organizational citizenship behavior, albeit on a temporary basis. OCB can be divided into two categories, behavior that is directed towards other individuals (OCBI) and behavior that is directed towards the organization (OCBO)
  6. 6. The Benefits of OCB OCB has been shown to have a positive impact on employee performance and wellbeing, and this in turn has noticeable flow- on effects on the organisation. The correlations between OCB and job satisfaction is approximately 0.4 (Organ, 1988). There is empirical evidence for the widely-held belief that satisfied workers perform better, but this is correlational, not causal. However, certain types of performance primarily those related to citizenship behaviour will be affected by job satisfaction.
  7. 7. Benefits of OCB Why does OCB seem to have such compelling effects on the individual and the success of an organisation? Organ et al. (2006) has offered the following suggestions. OCB can:
  8. 8. Benefits of OCB Enhance productivity (helping new co-workers; helping colleagues meet deadlines) Free up resources (autonomous, cooperative employees give managers more time to clear their work; helpful behaviour facilitates cohesiveness (as part of group maintenance behaviour)) Attract and retain good employees (through creating and maintaining a friendly, supportive working environment and a sense of belonging) Create social capital (better communication and stronger networks facilitate accurate information transfer and improve efficiency)
  9. 9. Types of OCB Altruism(OCBI) Altruism is defined as the desire to help or otherwise assist another individual, while not expecting a reward in compensation for that assistance. A common example outside of a business setting would be someone who drives a neighbor to work when their car has broken down, while not expecting gas money or favors in compensation. In a business setting, altruistic behavior is generally related to the work or project that the business group is working on. Someone exhibiting altruistic behavior in a group setting might volunteer to work on certain special projects, voluntarily helping or assisting other employees with their work or with other tasks, and volunteering to do additional work in order to help other employees reduce their own work load. Altruism in the workplace leads to productivity and effectiveness because it encourages good inter-employee relations; it can also reduce the stress load on other employees, such as those who are overwhelmed without a little bit of help, which will in turn increase productivity.
  10. 10. Types of OCB Courtesy(OCBI) Courtesy is defined as behavior which is polite and considerate towards other people. Courtesy outside of a workplace setting includes behavior such as asking how someone's morning has been or asking after the welfare of a neighbor's child. In a business context, courtesy is usually exhibited through behaviors such as inquiring about personal subjects that a coworker has previously brought up, asking if a coworker is having any trouble with a certain work related project, and informing coworkers about prior commitments or any other problems that might cause them to reduce their workload or be absent from work. Courtesy not only encourages positive social interactions between employees, which improve the work environment, but they can reduce any potential stress that might occur from employees who do not have the courtesy to inform their coworkers about issues such as upcoming absences from workand so on.
  11. 11. Types of OCB Sportmanship(OCBO) Sportsmanship is defined as exhibiting no negative behavior when something does not go as planned--or when something is being perceived as annoying, difficult, frustrating or otherwise negative. Outside of a business context, sportsmanship is most commonly associated with sports and games--poor sportsmanship, for example, might occur when a player on a soccer team swears stomps and argues when their team loses a soccer game. In the context of business, good sportsmanship is usually related to potential complaints about work or workloads in addition to negativity surrounding work-related surprises. For example: Imagine an employee who submits their proposal to their superior may be expecting it to be well-received and acceptedit is rejected, instead, and the employee displays good sportsmanship by not complaining about the situation to other coworkers or individuals who may report their behavior to others working for the business.
  12. 12. Types of OCB Conscientiousness(OCBO) Conscientiousness is defined as behavior that suggests a reasonable level of self-control and discipline, which extends beyond the minimum requirements expected in that situation. In the context of a business setting, conscientiousness is observed when an employee not only meets their employers requirementssuch as coming into work on time and completing assignments on timebut exceeds them. Exceeding these requirements, and thereby showing conscientiousness, could be observedfor exampleby an employee planning ahead to ensure that they, and their coworkers, do not become overwhelmed in their work.
  13. 13. Types of OCB Civic Virtue(OCBO) Civic virtue is defined as behavior which exhibits how well a person represents an organization with which they are associated, and how well that person supports their organization outside of an official capacity. For example, how well someone represents their business and how they may support that business are all examples of someone's civic virtue. Examples of civic virtue in a business setting include speaking positively about the business to friends, family and acquaintances; signing up for business events, such as charity walking events or fundraiser parties; and generally supporting the business by always representing the business to the best of their ability even when they are not working. Civic virtue encourages a sense of community within a business setting, which has been shown to be linked to job performance and job satisfaction in employees. Employees who feel a stronger connection with their place of employment are more likely to be productive and effective workers, when compared to those who do not share a sense of community.
  14. 14. Article Analysis Topic:Sleep and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction We examine sleep as an important factor beyond the work domain that is relevant to organizational citizenship behavior. In a field study of 87 employees from a variety of organizations, an objective measure of sleep quantity predicted organizational citizenship behavior directed toward organizations but not organizational citizenship behavior directed toward individuals. Additionally, job satisfaction mediated this relationship. In a second field study of 85 working college students, we found that natural variation in daily sleep over the course of a work week predicted daily variance in organizational citizenship behavior directed toward both individuals and organizations, and that job satisfaction mediated these relationships. Based on these findings, we discuss theoretical and practical implications of sleep-deprived employees.
  15. 15. OCB Video BbFt9hec0
  16. 16. Article Analysis Sleep and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Employees: Sleep can be defined as a state of immobility with greatly reduced responsiveness (Siegel, 2005) and can be distinguished from a coma or anesthesia by its rapid reversibility. A recent survey of over 66,000 Americans indicates that 30% get less than six hours of sleep per night (Luckhaupt et al., 2010) OCB is defined as behavior not directly recognized by the formal reward system but that contributes to organizational effectiveness (Organ et al., 2006). Because organizational citizenship behavior is not a required part of task performance and is not directly acknowledged by formal reward systems, employees have discretion in whether or not to engage in it. To date, the degree to which engagement in organizational citizenship behavior is influenced by sleep has not been empirically examined. As described below, we draw from previous research to contend that sleep influences engagement in organizational citizenship behavior via its association with job satisfaction.
  17. 17. Article Analysis Hyp

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