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Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS) Effective leadership begins with knowledge of self

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  • 1.Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS) Effective leadership begins with knowledge of self

2. The KTS

      • created by Dr. DavidKeirseyin 1978.
      • based on pioneering work by CarlJung
      • adapted from a psychometric instrument developed by IsabelMyersand KatherineBriggsthe Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(1962).

3. Uses

      • The KTS is widely used by businesses, government agencies, religious organizations, colleges and universities to determine the temperament type of individuals especially for team-building.

4. The KTS helps people in organizations to .. .

  • understand themselves and their behaviors
  • appreciate and benefit from individual strengths and differences
  • see a range of perspectives and approaches to problems
  • communicate more effectively with supervisors, peers, and employees

5. Applying insights from the KTS can helpyou. . .

  • choose professional pathways
  • improve teamwork
  • solve organizational or personal problems
  • make the most of an organizations human resources . . .


  • understand and adapt to differences in management style
  • understand contributions of others to the organization
  • resolve conflicts


      • The KTS measures preferences, not skills.
      • We can all do things we do
      • not prefer, but we default to preferred behaviors when we can, and when we are stressed.


      • Because there is no best type, there are no right or wrong responsesonly those that aremore accurate descriptions of you.

9. Guide to taking the KTS

  • Answer each of the 70 questions on a KTS answer sheet (10 15 minutes)
  • Be spontaneous. Dont second guess the inventory.
  • Follow directions for tallying and deriving a four-letter code for your temperament type.
  • Write your name in the box on the wall chart to show your type.
  • Then well talk!

10. Interpreting the Types:Four Primary Domains

  • TheE I(extroversion- introversion continuum tells how one is primarily energized E:social experience I:internal reflection.


  • 2.TheN S(intuition-sensation) continuum tells how one creates meaning:N: intuition, imagination andconstructs of the mind; focuses on
  • possibilityS: facts, experience, evidence from
  • the five senses; focuses on reality.


  • TheT-F(thinking-feeling) continuum tells how one prefers to make decisions
  • T: by logical or objective, rule-based
  • criteria
  • F: by personal value judgments,
  • case-by-case


  • TheJP(judging perceiving)
  • continuum tells whether one prefers to have things settled and decided or fluid and open.
  • J: pushes for conclusion
  • P: seeks more data, more options

14. Interpreting the Types

      • These pairings determine four primary types:
      • NT(intuitive, thinking) Rationalist
        • NF(intuitive, feeling) Idealist
        • SJ(sensing, judging) Guardian
        • SP(sensing, perceiving) Artisan

15. NT

  • Only 12% of population
  • Moved to understand, control, predict and explain realities.
  • Loves intelligence andmustbe competent. (Even play is aboutimprovement!)
  • Most self-critical of all types; fears failure.
  • Weighs credentials of critics; tests authority.
  • Believes others should work to same high standard.

16. NF

  • Only 12% of population.
  • Seeks self-actualization, integrity and unique identity to become what I am meant to be.
  • Works to find meaning and make a difference.
  • Wants to work with words, transmit ideas.
  • Devotes enormous energy to relationships.
  • Has trouble limiting work; over-commits.
  • Often carries unique influence in groups.

17. SJ

  • About 38% of population.
  • Acts as protector and caretaker of others.
  • Mustearnplaces of status and belonging.
  • Intensely loyal and responsible.
  • Believes in hierarchy, established norms.
  • Plans and conserves for future (SJ created Boy Scouts, Murphys Law.)

18. SP

  • About 38% of population.
  • Hungers for action.(SPs dont plan and practice; theydo !)
  • Thrives on testing the limits.
  • Loves situations with unknown outcomes.
  • Enjoys randomness, varied experience; often leaps before looking.
  • Not product oriented.(To SP, work is play!)
  • Often colorful, electric, envied, admired.

19. Four NTs

  • ENTJ
    • Takes charge quickly
    • Expects compliance
    • Imposes order and high expectations
    • Employs long-term strategies and
    • supportive logistics.
    • Abandons what interferes with mission
    • Blocks out other areas of life for work

20. NTs

  • INTJ
    • Most self-confident (sense of self power)
    • Nearly always high-achieving
    • Thought process is empirical logic
    • Authorityper sedoes not impress
    • Always focused on future and long-term goals
    • Wants to see systems translated into results
    • Often single-minded in pursuit of goals

21. NTs

  • ENTP
    • Hallmark is rational ingenuity
    • Improvises in a crisis; may substitute
    • ingenuity for deep knowledge
    • Loves complexity; dislikes routine
    • Embraces new thinking
    • Fascinating conversationalist, debater
    • Exults in competence: I can do it!

22. NTS

  • INTP
    • Only 1% of population drawn to work as
    • mathematician, scientist, philosopher
    • An architect of ideas and systems
    • Impatient with implementation
    • Precise in thinking, language, analysis
    • Not socially driven, may seem difficult toknow

23. Four NFs

  • ENFJ
    • Only 5% of population
    • Goal or vision-oriented; plans ahead
    • Leads with personal style; excels in
    • sustained interactions
    • Fluent with language, especially speech
    • Adept at reading others
    • Often struggles to disengage or set
    • boundaries

24. NFs

  • INFJ
    • Only 1% of population
    • A private visionary with creative inner life
    • Drawn to counseling, psychology,
    • individual therapy
    • Shows great personal warmth, depth of
    • concentration, sensitivity to others
    • Dislikes superficial interactions, conflict
    • Works well in organizational structures

25. NFs

  • ENFP
    • Contagiously enthusiastic, inspiring
    • A high impact personality
    • Shows exceptional insight into others
    • Needs interaction and feedback
    • Dislikes routine and painstaking detail
    • Can solve most people problems
    • Keeps a wide network of contacts

26. NFs

  • INFP
    • Only 1% of population
    • Presents calm, quiet exterior
    • Focuses deeply on personal values
    • Values and honor trump logic
    • Sacrifices for cherished persons, causes
    • Fiercely protects value system
    • Drawn to scholarly activities, service, mission
    • work away from business.

27. Four SJs

  • ESTJ
    • 13% of population
    • Wants things done and done well!
    • Often rises to position of responsibility
    • Realistic, clear, direct, dependable, organized
    • Pillar of the community
    • Honors tradition; may resist change
    • May jump to conclusions without listening to
    • opposing views

28. SJs

  • ISTJ
    • A pillar of strength inpractical affairs
    • Seeks justice and right behavior
    • Quiet, conservative, reliable, stable
    • Extraordinarily persevering, dependable
    • Drawn to work as auditor, securities
    • investor
    • Outstanding with difficult, detailed figures
    • May be impatient with individual people

29. SJs

  • ESFJ
    • Most sociable of all types
    • Supports and appreciates tradition
    • Brilliantly personalizes interactions
    • Loyal; duty and service-oriented
    • Fueled by appreciation
    • Focuses on people, things, practical
    • needs; not abstract or philosophical matters

30. SJs

  • ISFJ
    • Primarily desires to serve
    • Super dependable!
    • Carries a strong sense of history and
    • connection to the past
    • Relates well to those in need students,
    • the boss loses interest if not needed
    • When in charge, may do it myself rather than
    • insist that others do their jobs

31. Four SPs

  • ESTP
    • Loves action!Makes things happen!
    • Outstanding as entrepreneur, diplomat,
    • peerless negotiator, salesperson, corporate
    • turnaround leader
    • Lives with a theatrical flourish!
    • Uncanny observer of people, motivations,
    • non-verbal cues
    • Appears to have nerves of steel!

32. SPs

  • ISTP
    • Sees well-executed action as the whole point!
    • A master of tools, from scalpels to SSTs
    • Pits oneself, or ones skill, against all odds
    • Views authority as useless or irrelevant
    • Converses little, or tersely
    • Hit men, gunslingers of the past, climbers, racers, surgeons, stunt men and artists (like Michelangelo and Leonardo) are likely ISTPs.

33. SPs

  • ESFP
    • Always has accurate real world data gained
    • through effortless, pinpoint observations
    • Excellent at working with people in crisis
    • Most generous of all types
    • Avoids being alone; always seeks company
    • Language flows easily
    • Loves excitement; always creates it
    • Low tolerance for anxiety (Just do it!)

34. SPs

  • ISFP
    • Called to fine arts and athletics
    • Expresses self through artistic actionor not
    • at all
    • Doesnt plan and prepare.Every act is full
    • performance.
    • Unique intelligence:must choose action in
    • which every next move is a free variable
    • Harpo Marx, Beethoven, Rembrandt,
    • Nijinski and many great athletes are ISFPs.

35. A final KTS activity

  • Write your four-letter type on your name tag.
  • Create discussion group with others whose results are similar to yours.
  • Assess agreement / disagreement with insights regarding your type.
  • As a group, consider how you might use this inventory as a tool for personal or professional growth.


  • Keirsey, D., and Bates, M.(1984).Please understand me:Character and temperament types(fifth ed.). Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis.