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- 1.Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS) Effective leadership begins
with knowledge of self
2. The KTS
- created by Dr. DavidKeirseyin 1978.
- based on pioneering work by CarlJung
- adapted from a psychometric instrument developed by
IsabelMyersand KatherineBriggsthe Myers-Briggs Type
- The KTS is widely used by businesses, government agencies,
religious organizations, colleges and universities to determine the
temperament type of individuals especially for team-building.
4. The KTS helps people in organizations to .. .
- understand themselves and their behaviors
- appreciate and benefit from individual strengths and
- see a range of perspectives and approaches to problems
- communicate more effectively with supervisors, peers, and
5. Applying insights from the KTS can helpyou. . .
- choose professional pathways
- solve organizational or personal problems
- make the most of an organizations human resources . . .
- understand and adapt to differences in management style
- understand contributions of others to the organization
- The KTS measures preferences, not skills.
- We can all do things we do
- not prefer, but we default to preferred behaviors when we can,
and when we are stressed.
- Because there is no best type, there are no right or wrong
responsesonly those that aremore accurate descriptions of you.
9. Guide to taking the KTS
- Answer each of the 70 questions on a KTS answer sheet (10 15
- Be spontaneous. Dont second guess the inventory.
- Follow directions for tallying and deriving a four-letter code
for your temperament type.
- Write your name in the box on the wall chart to show your
10. Interpreting the Types:Four Primary Domains
- TheE I(extroversion- introversion continuum tells how one is
primarily energized E:social experience I:internal reflection.
- 2.TheN S(intuition-sensation) continuum tells how one creates
meaning:N: intuition, imagination andconstructs of the mind;
- possibilityS: facts, experience, evidence from
- the five senses; focuses on reality.
- TheT-F(thinking-feeling) continuum tells how one prefers to
- T: by logical or objective, rule-based
- F: by personal value judgments,
- TheJP(judging perceiving)
- continuum tells whether one prefers to have things settled and
decided or fluid and open.
- P: seeks more data, more options
14. Interpreting the Types
- These pairings determine four primary types:
- NT(intuitive, thinking) Rationalist
- NF(intuitive, feeling) Idealist
- SJ(sensing, judging) Guardian
- SP(sensing, perceiving) Artisan
- Moved to understand, control, predict and explain
- Loves intelligence andmustbe competent. (Even play is
- Most self-critical of all types; fears failure.
- Weighs credentials of critics; tests authority.
- Believes others should work to same high standard.
- Seeks self-actualization, integrity and unique identity to
become what I am meant to be.
- Works to find meaning and make a difference.
- Wants to work with words, transmit ideas.
- Devotes enormous energy to relationships.
- Has trouble limiting work; over-commits.
- Often carries unique influence in groups.
- Acts as protector and caretaker of others.
- Mustearnplaces of status and belonging.
- Intensely loyal and responsible.
- Believes in hierarchy, established norms.
- Plans and conserves for future (SJ created Boy Scouts, Murphys
- Hungers for action.(SPs dont plan and practice; theydo !)
- Thrives on testing the limits.
- Loves situations with unknown outcomes.
- Enjoys randomness, varied experience; often leaps before
- Not product oriented.(To SP, work is play!)
- Often colorful, electric, envied, admired.
19. Four NTs
- Imposes order and high expectations
- Employs long-term strategies and
- Abandons what interferes with mission
- Blocks out other areas of life for work
- Most self-confident (sense of self power)
- Nearly always high-achieving
- Thought process is empirical logic
- Authorityper sedoes not impress
- Always focused on future and long-term goals
- Wants to see systems translated into results
- Often single-minded in pursuit of goals
- Hallmark is rational ingenuity
- Improvises in a crisis; may substitute
- ingenuity for deep knowledge
- Loves complexity; dislikes routine
- Fascinating conversationalist, debater
- Exults in competence: I can do it!
- Only 1% of population drawn to work as
- mathematician, scientist, philosopher
- An architect of ideas and systems
- Impatient with implementation
- Precise in thinking, language, analysis
- Not socially driven, may seem difficult toknow
23. Four NFs
- Goal or vision-oriented; plans ahead
- Leads with personal style; excels in
- Fluent with language, especially speech
- Often struggles to disengage or set
- A private visionary with creative inner life
- Drawn to counseling, psychology,
- Shows great personal warmth, depth of
- concentration, sensitivity to others
- Dislikes superficial interactions, conflict
- Works well in organizational structures
- Contagiously enthusiastic, inspiring
- A high impact personality
- Shows exceptional insight into others
- Needs interaction and feedback
- Dislikes routine and painstaking detail
- Can solve most people problems
- Keeps a wide network of contacts
- Presents calm, quiet exterior
- Focuses deeply on personal values
- Values and honor trump logic
- Sacrifices for cherished persons, causes
- Fiercely protects value system
- Drawn to scholarly activities, service, mission
27. Four SJs
- Wants things done and done well!
- Often rises to position of responsibility
- Realistic, clear, direct, dependable, organized
- Honors tradition; may resist change
- May jump to conclusions without listening to
- A pillar of strength inpractical affairs
- Seeks justice and right behavior
- Quiet, conservative, reliable, stable
- Extraordinarily persevering, dependable
- Drawn to work as auditor, securities
- Outstanding with difficult, detailed figures
- May be impatient with individual people
- Most sociable of all types
- Supports and appreciates tradition
- Brilliantly personalizes interactions
- Loyal; duty and service-oriented
- Focuses on people, things, practical
- needs; not abstract or philosophical matters
- Primarily desires to serve
- Carries a strong sense of history and
- Relates well to those in need students,
- the boss loses interest if not needed
- When in charge, may do it myself rather than
- insist that others do their jobs
31. Four SPs
- Loves action!Makes things happen!
- Outstanding as entrepreneur, diplomat,
- peerless negotiator, salesperson, corporate
- Lives with a theatrical flourish!
- Uncanny observer of people, motivations,
- Appears to have nerves of steel!
- Sees well-executed action as the whole point!
- A master of tools, from scalpels to SSTs
- Pits oneself, or ones skill, against all odds
- Views authority as useless or irrelevant
- Converses little, or tersely
- Hit men, gunslingers of the past, climbers, racers, surgeons,
stunt men and artists (like Michelangelo and Leonardo) are likely
- Always has accurate real world data gained
- through effortless, pinpoint observations
- Excellent at working with people in crisis
- Most generous of all types
- Avoids being alone; always seeks company
- Loves excitement; always creates it
- Low tolerance for anxiety (Just do it!)
- Called to fine arts and athletics
- Expresses self through artistic actionor not
- Doesnt plan and prepare.Every act is full
- Unique intelligence:must choose action in
- which every next move is a free variable
- Harpo Marx, Beethoven, Rembrandt,
- Nijinski and many great athletes are ISFPs.
35. A final KTS activity
- Write your four-letter type on your name tag.
- Create discussion group with others whose results are similar
- Assess agreement / disagreement with insights regarding your
- As a group, consider how you might use this inventory as a tool
for personal or professional growth.
- Keirsey, D., and Bates, M.(1984).Please understand me:Character
and temperament types(fifth ed.). Del Mar, CA: Prometheus