IT INFRASTRUCTURE AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES

  • View
    1.584

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

IT INFRASTRUCTURE AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES

Text of IT INFRASTRUCTURE AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES

  • 1. Chapter 5IITT IINNFFRRAASSTTRRUUCCTTUURREE AANNDDEEMMEERRGGIINNGG TTEECCHHNNOOLLOOGGIIEESSVIDEO CASESCase 1: ESPN.com: Getting to eXtreme Scale On the WebCase 2: Salesforce.com: Managing by SmartphoneCase 3: Hudson's Bay Company and IBM: Virtual Blade PlatformInstructional Video 1: Google and IBM Produce Cloud ComputingInstructional Video 2: IBM Blue Cloud is Ready-to-Use Computing

2. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesLEARNING OBJECTIVES Define IT infrastructure and describe itscomponents. Identify and describe the stages and technologydrivers of IT infrastructure evolution. Assess contemporary computer hardware platformtrends. Assess contemporary software platform trends. Evaluate the challenges of managing ITinfrastructure and management solutions.5.2 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 3. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesThe Army Recasts its IT Infrastructure Problem: Costly and unwieldy ITinfrastructure; diminishing resources Solutions: Streamline data centers Implement enterprise-wide computing Employ new technologies: virtualization, mobilesystems Demonstrates ITs role in improvingperformance and decreasing costs5.3 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 4. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT Infrastructure IT infrastructure: Set of physical devices and software required tooperate enterprise Set of firmwide services including: Computing platforms providing computing services Telecommunications services Data management services Application software services Physical facilities management services IT management, education, and other services Service platform perspective More accurate view of value of investments5.4 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 5. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesCONNECTION BETWEEN THE FIRM, IT INFRASTRUCTURE, AND BUSINESS CAPABILITIESThe services a firm is capable of providing to its customers, suppliers, and employees are a direct function of itsIT infrastructure. Ideally, this infrastructure should support the firms business and information systems strategy.New information technologies have a powerful impact on business and IT strategies, as well as the services thatcan be provided to customers.FIGURE 5-15.5 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 6. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT Infrastructure Evolution of IT infrastructure General-purpose mainframe and minicomputer era: 1959to present 1958: IBM first mainframes introduced 1965: less expensive DEC minicomputers introduced Personal computer era: 1981 to present 1981: Introduction of IBM PC Proliferation in 80s, 90s resulted in growth of personal software Client/server era: 1983 to present Desktop clients networked to servers, with processing work split betweenclients and servers Network may be two-tiered or multitiered (N-tiered) Various types of servers (network, application, Web)5.6 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 7. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT Infrastructure Evolution of IT infrastructure (cont.) Enterprise computing era: 1992 to present Move toward integrating disparate networks,applications using Internet standards and enterpriseapplications Cloud and mobile computing: 2000 to present Cloud computing: computing power and softwareapplications supplied over the Internet or othernetwork Fastest growing form of computing5.7 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 8. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesSTAGES IN IT INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTIONIllustrated here are the typicalcomputing configurationscharacterizing each of the fiveeras of IT infrastructureevolution.FIGURE 5-25.8 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 9. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesSTAGES IN IT INFRASTRUCTURE EVOLUTION (cont.)Illustrated here are the typicalcomputing configurationscharacterizing each of the fiveeras of IT infrastructureevolution.FIGURE 5-25.9 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 10. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesA MULTITIERED CLIENT/SERVER NETWORK (N-TIER)In a multitiered client/server network, client requests for service are handled by FIGURE 5-3 different levels of servers.5.10 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 11. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT Infrastructure Technology drivers of infrastructureevolution Moores law and microprocessing power Computing power doubles every 18 monthsNanotechnology: Shrinks size of transistors to size comparable to sizeof a virus Law of Mass Digital Storage The amount of data being stored each yeardoubles5.11 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 12. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesMOORES LAW AND MICROPROCESSOR PERFORMANCEPacking more than 2 billiontransistors into a tinymicroprocessor hasexponentially increasedprocessing power. Processingpower has increased to morethan 500,000 MIPS (millions ofinstructions per second).FIGURE 5-45.12 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 13. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesPacking more transistors intoless space has driven downtransistor cost dramatically aswell as the cost of the productsin which they are used.FIGURE 5-5FALLING COST OF CHIPS5.13 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 14. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesNanotubes are tiny tubes about10,000 times thinner than ahuman hair. They consist ofrolled up sheets of carbonhexagons and have the potentialuses as minuscule wires or inultrasmall electronic devicesand are very powerfulconductors of electrical current.FIGURE 5-6EXAMPLES OF NANOTUBES5.14 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 15. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesTHE COST OF STORING DATA DECLINES EXPONENTIALLY 19502012Since the first magnetic storagedevice was used in 1955, thecost of storing a kilobyte ofdata has fallen exponentially,doubling the amount of digitalstorage for each dollarexpended every 15 months onaverage.FIGURE 5-75.15 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 16. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT Infrastructure Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution (cont.) Metcalfes Law and network economics Value or power of a network growsexponentially as a function of the number ofnetwork members As network members increase, more peoplewant to use it (demand for network accessincreases)5.16 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 17. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT Infrastructure Technology drivers of infrastructure evolution (cont.) Declining communication costs and the Internet An estimated 2.3 billion people worldwide haveInternet access As communication costs fall toward a verysmall number and approach 0, utilization ofcommunication and computing facilitiesexplodes5.17 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 18. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesEXPONENTIAL DECLINES IN INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS COSTSOne reason for the growth in the Internet population is the rapid decline in Internet connection and overallcommunication costs. The cost per kilobit of Internet access has fallen exponentially since 1995. Digital subscriberline (DSL) and cable modems now deliver a kilobit of communication for a retail price of around 2 cents.FIGURE 5-85.18 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 19. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesIT Infrastructure Technology drivers of infrastructureevolution (cont.) Standards and network effects Technology standards: Specifications that establish the compatibility ofproducts and the ability to communicate in anetwork Unleash powerful economies of scale and result inprice declines as manufacturers focus on theproducts built to a single standard5.19 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 20. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesInfrastructure Components IT Infrastructure has seven main components1. Computer hardware platforms2. Operating system platforms3. Enterprise software applications4. Data management and storage5. Networking/telecommunications platforms6. Internet platforms7. Consulting system integration services5.20 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 21. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesThere are seven majorcomponents that must becoordinated to provide the firmwith a coherent ITinfrastructure. Listed here aremajor technologies andsuppliers for each component.FIGURE 5-9THE IT INFRASTRUCTURE ECOSYSTEM5.21 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 22. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesInfrastructure Components Computer hardware platforms Client machines Desktop PCs, mobile devicesPDAs, laptops Servers Blade servers: ultrathin computers stored in racks Mainframes: IBM mainframe equivalent to thousands of bladeservers Top chip producers: AMD, Intel, IBM Top firms: IBM, HP, Dell, Sun Microsystems5.22 Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. 23. Management Information SystemsChapter 5: IT Infrastructure and Emerging TechnologiesInfrastructure Components Operating system platforms Operating systems Server level: 65% run Unix or Linux; 35% run Windows Client level: 90% run Microsoft Windows (XP, 2000, CE, etc.) Mobile/multitouch (Android, iOS) Clou