Glossary of Nautical Terms

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<ul><li> 1. GLOSSARY OF NAUTICAL TERMSAmidships. The middle of a vessel, both longitudinally and transversely.Athwartships Across the ship from side to side, at right angles to the keel.BallastHeavy material eg. stone, iron or lead, placed low in the hold to improve stability and lower the centre of gravity.BargeA flat-bottomed vessel for inland or coastal waters.Beakhead A projecting structure forward of the forecastle.Beam The width or breadth of the hull, also timbers mounted athwartships to support decks and give lateral strength.BevelThe curvature or fore-and-aft angle of an inner or outer frame.Beveling The technique of shaping a frame timber to its correct fore-and-aft curvature.BilgeThe area of the hulls bottom on which it would rest if grounded: generally the outer end of the floor. When used in the plural, especially in contemporary documents, bilges, refers to the various cavities between the frames in the floor of the hold where bilge water tends to collect.Bilge keel A secondary keel placed beneath the bilge or at the outer end of the floor. Sometimes called a sister keel.Bitt A strong upright post used for securing lines and cables.Boat An open vessel. Usually small and without decks. Also submarines are referred to as boats.Bottom The underwater portion of a fully loaded hull; also used as a general designation for a seagoing vessel.BowThe forward part of a hull, specifically, from the point where the sides curve inward to the stem.Bowsprit A spar projecting forward from the bow.Boxing A type of scarf used primarily to join the keel to the stem or keel timbers to each other.Breastwork Ballustrades along the upper decks.Bulkhead A vertical partition, either fore-and-aft or athwartships.BulwarkThe side of a vessel above its upper deck.</li></ul><p> 2. GLOSSARY OF NAUTICAL TERMSBurdenThe cargo capacity of a vessel.ButtThe lateral end of a hull plank or timber.Cable lockerThe compartment where the anchor cable was coiled and stored.CamberThe arch, or convexity of a timber: decks were usually cambered sothat water would run to the sides and out the scuppers. Also known ascrown.Cant frameA framing member mounted obliquely to the keel centreline in theends of the vessel; canting provided better frame distribution andpermitted more neatly rectangular cross sections of the timbers alongthe vessels incurving ends.Capstan A spool-shaped vertical timber, mounted on a spindle and bearing,turned by means of levers and bars; used for moving heavy loads, suchas hoisting anchors, lifting yards, or careening vessels.CareenTo deliberately list a vessel so that part of its bottom was exposed forcaulking, cleaning, repairing etc.Carline (Carling) Fore-and-aft deck timbers set between the deck beams to stiffen themand support the ledges.Carvel-builtPlanked so that the seams were smooth or aligned, as opposed toclinker-built.Caulk To drive oakum, moss, animal hair or other fibrous material into theseams of planking and cover it with pitch to make the seamswatertight.Caulking iron A chisel-shaped tool used to drive caulking into seams.Ceiling The internal planking of a vessel.Chamfer The flat sloping surface created by slicing the end off a timber.Chine The angular junction of the bottom and side of a vessel; usually foundon flat-bottomed hulls or those with little deadrise. Can also refer to alongitudinal timber located just inside the junction, to whichathwartships bottom planks are fastened.Chock An angular block or wedge used to fill out areas between timbers or toseparate them; chocks were used to fill out deadwoods and headknees, separate frames and futtocks etc. 3. GLOSSARY OF NAUTICAL TERMSClenched lapSee Clinker-built.Clinker-built A vessel constructed so that its outer planking overlaps, and is fastenedto, the plank immediately below it. The surface of a plank overlappedby its neighbour is called a land and this double thickness is normallyheld together with closely spaced rivets or nails clenched over metalwashers called roves. Clinker hulls held together by clenched nails canalso be referred to as clenched lap or lapstrake hulls.Cockpit The sick bay; on yachts, the well from which the vessel is directed.Compass timberNaturally curved timbers used for frames, knees, and construction inthe ends of the hull.Copper-bottomed A vessel whose bottom was sheathed in copper to prevent fouling andworm infestation.Copper-fastened A vessel whose fastenings were made of copper.Cordage A general term for ropes and cables.Counter Technically, the transverse section between the bottom of the sternand the wing transom. However, many documents and drawings referto the counter as the entire transverse area between the top of thesternpost and the rail or taffrail.CradleA structure for supporting a vessel out of water.Crown See camber.CutwaterThe forewardmost part of the stem: the stem piece or nosing that partsthe water.Dagger knee A knee set angularly on the inside of the hull; a knee that is neithervertical or horizontal.DeadwoodBlocks of timber assembled on top or the keel, usually in the ends ofthe hull, to fill out the narrow parts of a vessels body.Diagonal braces Pillars or posts set angularly in the hull to stiffen it. Used in pairs, onebrace on each side of the hull.Diagonal frames Frames or riders placed diagonally over the regular frames or ceilingto provide additional stiffening to a hull.Double-diagonal Form of planking utilising two layers of planks at right angles to oneanother to enhance stiffness. Generally 20th century. 4. GLOSSARY OF NAUTICAL TERMSDouble-enderA vessel whose bow and stern have approximately the same horizontalshape, such as rounded, pointed, or square ends.Draught The depth to which a hull is immersed; also a drawing or plan.False keelA plank, timber or timbers attached to the bottom of the keel to protectit in the event of grounding.Flare The upward and outward curvature of a vessels bows. Also asignalling illuminant.Floor The bottom of a vessel between the upward turns of its bilges.Floor timberA frame timber that crossed the keel and spanned the bottom; thecentral piece of a compound frame. Sometimes referred to as floors.Forecastle (focsle) Variously, a short, raised foredeck, the forward part of the upper deckbetween the foremast and the stem, or the quarters below the foredeck.Frame A transverse timber, or line or assembly of timbers, that described thebody shape of a vessel and to which the planking and ceiling werefastened. Frames were sometimes called timbers or, erroneously, ribs.Ancient ships often had frames composed of lines of unconnectedtimbers; later ships usually had compound frames composed of floortimbers, futtocks, and top timbers. Square frames were those setperpendicular to the keel; in the bow and stern there were cantframes, running obliquely to the keel.Freeboard The distance between the waterline and upper deck.Futtock A frame timber, other than a floor timber, half-frame, or top timber;one of the middle pieces of a frame.Garboard strake The strake of planking next to the keel; the lowest plank. Also thelowest side strake of a flat-bottomed hull.GirdlingThe practice of adding timber to the sides of ships to increase theirbreadth and thereby improve stability. The practice was most commonon 16th and 17th century British vessels and was employed to overcomedesign flaws due to inability to calculate metacentric height.Graving The practice of cleaning a hulls bottom by burning barnacles, grassand other foul material preparatory to recoating it with tar, sulphur etc. 5. GLOSSARY OF NAUTICAL TERMSGudgeonA metal bracket attached to the sternpost into which a rudder pintle was hung; the female part of a rudder hinge.GunwaleThe upper edge of a vessels side. In 16th century vessels, the wale against which the guns rest.Half-frame A frame whose heel began at or near one side of the keel or deadwood and spanned part or all of that side of the hull; half-frames were usually used in pairs.Hanging knee A vertical angular timber used to reinforce the junction of a beam and a side.HatchA rectangular opening in a vessels deck.Hawse hole A cylindrical hole in the bow through which the anchor cable passed.Hawse pipe The tube through which the anchor cable passed between the hawse hole and windlass or capstan deck.Hawser A strong rope used to tow or tie up a vessel.Head In a general sense, the forward part of a vessel; the extreme bow area; also, a name sometimes given to the figurehead or, on later vessels, to the latrine.Heel The junction of the keel and sternpost, also an angular timber connecting the keel to the sternpost. Also the action of a vessel leaning to one side, eg. under a press of sail.Helm The tiller or steering wheel; in a general context, the wheel, tiller and rudder.HoggingThe strain on a hull from waves that causes its ends to droop.Hold In a general sense, the interior of a hull. The term is more commonly used to describe the part of a merchant ships interior where the cargo and ballast were stowed or, on a warship, the room below the deck where stores and ballast were kept.Iron kneeA knee made from iron.Jib-boom A spar extending the length of the bowsprit.JogglesNotches cut into the surface or edge of a timber, as in the exterior frame surfaces of clinker-built vessels. 6. GLOSSARY OF NAUTICAL TERMSKeel The main logitudinal timber or line of timbers of most hulls, upon which the frames, deadwoods, and ends of the hull were mounted; the backbone of the hull.KeelsonAn internal longitudinal timber or line of timbers, mounted atop the frames along the centreline of the keel, that provided additional longitudinal strength to the bottom of the hull; an internal keel.Knee An angular piece of timber or iron used to reinforce the junction of two surfaces of different planes. In timber, usually made from the crotch of a tree where two large branches intersected, or where a branch or root joined the trunk.Land The portion of a plank that is overlapped by another on a clinker-built vessel.LapstrakeSee clinker-built.Larboard See port.Leeboard A large plate, or assembly of timbers, mounted on the side of a hull and lowered when sailing off the wind to increase lateral resistance and reduce leeway.Limber holes Apertures cut into the bottom surfaces of frames over, or on either side of, the keel to allow water to drain into the pump well.LinesThe various shapes of a hull. Expressed graphically, a set of geometric projections, usually arranged in three views, that illustrates the shape of a vessels hull.Lodging knee A horizontal knee used to reinforce two perpendicular beams or the junction of a beam and the side of a hull.Longitudinal See stringer.MainpieceSee Rudder stock.Mast stepA mortise cut into the top of a keelson or large floor timber, or a mortised wooden block or assembly of blocks mounted on the floor timbers or keelson, into which the tenoned heel of a mast was seated. 7. GLOSSARY OF NAUTICAL TERMSMetacentreThe intersection of a vertical line drawn through the centre of gravityof a vessel when it is stable, with a vertical line drawn through itscentre of buoyancy when the vessel is heeled. Used by naval architectsto calculate the stability of a vessel.MidshipsA contraction of amidships and consequently, in a general sense, itrefers to the middle of the vessel. In construction, however, it is oftenused as an adjective referring to the broadest part of the hull, whereverit may be. Also a helm order to centre the rudder.Moulded The various dimensions of timbers as seen from the sheer and bodyviews of construction plans; ie. those seen from the side of the vessel.Thus, the vertical surfaces (the sides) of keels, the fore-and-aft sides ofthe posts, the vertical or athwartships surfaces of frames etc.Normally timbers are expressed in sided and moulded dimensionswhile planks and wales are listed in thicknesses and widths. Mouldedand sided dimensions are used because of the changing orientation oftimbers, such as frames, where thick and wide or height anddepth become confusing.Mortise A cavity cut into a timber to receive a tenon.Oakum Caulking materiel made from old rope and scraps; it was unwound,picked apart , and the fibres were rolled and soaked in pitch beforebeing driven into the planking seems.Orlop deckThe lowest deck of a large ship.OutboardSituated near or on the outer side of a vessel; toward the outer side.PintleA vertical pin at the forward edge of a stern-hung rudder that fits into agudgeon on the sternpost to form a hinge. On most vessels they werewelded or cast to a bracket whose arms were fastened to the sides ofthe rudder.PlankingThe outer lining, or shell, of a hull.Planking strake A continuous line of planks, usually running from bow to stern; thesum of a row of planks.Poop (poopdeck) The highest and aftermost deck of a ship. 8. GLOSSARY OF NAUTICAL TERMSPort The left side of a vessel when facing forward. Until the 19th century, this was generally known as larboard.Pump wellThe cavity or compartment in the bottom of the hull, usually near amidships, where bilgewater collected and from where it was pumped out.QuarterThe after part of a vessels side.QuarterdeckThe after part of the upper deck, from the mainmast to the poop.Quarter timber A frame in a vessels quarter.Rabbet A groove or cut in a piece of timber in such a way that the edges of another piece could be fitted to it to make a tight joint. Generally, the term refers to the grooves cut into the sides of the keel, stem and sternpost, into which the ends of the outer planking were seated.RibA small transverse member, often flexible and composed of one or several pieces, that stiffened the outer skin of a hull. Although a laymans term for frame, rib is more properly applied to small craft such as canoes, small boats, certain heavy frames that run from gunwale to gunwale in clinker-built vessels, or vessels whose skin is made from material other than wood.RiderAn internal frame seated atop the ceiling, to which it was fastened; riders could be single pieces, but more often they were complete frames comprising a number of frames. Installed either diagonally or transversely, they provided extra stiffening.Rove A small metal washer, used in clinker-built hulls, over which nail or rivet ends are flattened to lock the fastening. The term was also applied to washers used in bolting scarfs, floor timbers etc. 9. GLOSSARY OF NAUTICAL TERMSRudderA timber, or assembly of timbers that could be rotated around an axisto control the direction of a vessel underway. Until the middle of theMedieval period, the practice was to hang rudders on one or both sternquarters; these are known as quarter rudders. By the late Medievalperiod, however, it appears that most vessels of appreciable size weresteered by a single rudder hung at the sternpost; these are known asstern-hung rudders.Rudder stockA strong vertical piece to which the tiller was fitted; on large post-medieval vessels it was the main vertical timber of the rudder, and wasa...</p>