Aipmm ethnography

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Presentation/workshop for AIPMM, 2010. How ethnography fits into the product management process.


<ul><li> 1. Ethnography: From Intelligence to Insights to Action</li></ul> <p> 2. </p> <ul><li>What is ethnography: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>The term ethnography is used fairly loosely these daysand expectations and final outcomes vary as much as the people calling themselves ethnographers. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Ethnography is more than a variety of methods, it is a way of approaching knowledge and understanding the world. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Before deciding to use an ethnographic approach,it is imperative to know what to expect. </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 3. </p> <ul><li>What is ethnography: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>It meets people where the action occurs</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>It is inductive </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Does not go into the field with answers running </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>It is focused on systems, practices, and beliefs </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>It is systematic </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>It is best when it is exploratory </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 4. </p> <ul><li>What is ethnography: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Everything is data </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Focused for business objectives </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Best done in teams </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Uses culture and shared knowledgeas the center of investigation </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 5. </p> <ul><li>Culture </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Is often not conscious </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Is constantly changing/evolves over time </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Is Material </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Is Normative </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Is the Social Construction of Reality </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Cultural relativity </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>What to do with cleaning teeth,what to do with the dead </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 6. Ethnographic methods 7. </p> <ul><li>Ethnographic methods </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>A core ethnographic technique is participant-observation,</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>where the researcher participates in and observes the behavior under examination. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Observe </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Interview </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Interact </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Ethnographic research turns more traditional market researchon its head, by treating the participant as the expert on thetopic of interest. </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 8. </p> <ul><li>Ethnographic methods </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>The goal of ethnography should be understanding: </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Unmet needs </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Product usage and modification </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>A product category </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>The culture around a particular thing, activity, idea </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>How people interact or move through a space </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>The process people go through to choose a service or product </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>How things and contexts are connected and influence</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>each other </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 9. </p> <ul><li>Ethnographic methods </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Sampling people and contexts </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Finding the range of contexts where X happens </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>What is the unit of analysis? </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>How many is enough? </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Remembering that the goal is not means-based statistical testing </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Statistical versus Practical significance </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 10. </p> <ul><li>What to expect with an ethnographic research project </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Ethnography provides a vivid, real-world way of lookingat a problem or opportunity. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Ethnography applies social and cultural understandingto the topic. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>The more strategic and exploratory the research question,the more likely that ethnography will be a good fit.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Ethnography is really effective at uncovering new insights and ideas that can be used to further strategic goals. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 11. </p> <ul><li>What to expect with an ethnographic research project </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Ethnography is not the panacea, there are certain research questions/goals that make for a nice fit and others that do not. </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>An experienced ethnographic researcher will guide the businessin presenting results and help them communicate the knowledge throughout the company.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>An experienced ethnographer will work with a client to turninsights into action. </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 12. </p> <ul><li>What to ask your ethnographer </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Much of what is being referred to as ethnographic research is </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>not really ethnography.Following are a number of questions</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>every ethnographer should be able to answer: </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Is my project a good fit for ethnography? </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Your ethnographic provider should be able to suggest the</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>best methodology for your project, whether ethnography</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>or something else, based on your business objectives,</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>timeline and budget. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 13. </p> <ul><li>What to ask your ethnographer </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Do ethnographers have a discussion guidelike focus group moderators? </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Yes, they create a fieldguide to help frame thebusiness need.However, each ethnographer hasa different style of inquiry, and will not repeatverbatim what is in the fieldguide. The fieldguide isa tool for the ethnographer, not a questionnaire. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>What is the ethnographic analysis process? </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Ethnographers should be able to explain anddescribe their analytical process and this descriptionshould include a reference to social and culturaltheory.It should also involve an iterative process ofdata collection and examination. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 14. </p> <ul><li>What to ask your ethnographer </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>How can I be sure I can use the results from ethnographicresearch to support decision-making? </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>A good ethnographic research provider will workwith you to plan a research project that is designedaround your business objective. A good ethnographer understands the difference between interesting andactionable findings. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul>