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Hafiz Akmal CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry 1 SULPHURIC ACID

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  • 1. Hafiz Akmal 1 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industrySULPHURIC ACIDIn the pure, concentratedsulphuric acid is a diproticform, sulphuric acid is an(dibasic) mineral acid oily, colourless liquid which does not volatise. which is dense and viscous.It has high boiling point, that is 270 C

2. Hafiz Akmal 2CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryUSES OF SULPHURIC ACID 18%1%38%making fertiliser12%paints chemicals detergents 18%13%removing dust from steel other uses Figure 1:- Uses of Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4 3. Hafiz Akmal 3CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry2H2SO4 (l) + Ca3(PO4)2 (s) Ca(H2PO4)2 (l) + 2CaSO4 (s) superphosphate fertilisers :- - it is manufacturedfrom the reactionbetween sulphuric acid and calcium phosphate.sulphuricacid: makingfertiliserAmmonia Sulphate Potassium Sulphate:- fertiliser:-- It is manufactured by- It is manufacturedthe neutralisation ofby the neutralisation sulphuric acidof sulphuric acid andpotassium hydoxideammonia2KOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O (l) 2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq)(NH4)2SO4(aq) 4. Hafiz Akmal 4CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryMANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACIDThe manufacture of sulphuric acid in industry is through thecontact process.The raw materials used to manufacture the acid are sulphur, airand water.The acid is produced in 3 stages:- Stage 1: The production of sulphur dioxide Stage 2: Formation of sulphur trioxideStage 3: Formation of sulphuric acid 5. Hafiz Akmal 5CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry STAGE 1:THE PRODUCTION OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE a) This can be obtained through two methods:-a) Heating liquid sulphur with hot air in a furnace.S (s) + O2 (g) SO2 (g)b) Heating sulphides in air, for example:4FeS2 (s) + 11O2 (g) 2Fe2O3 (s) + 8SO2 (g)SO2 is a side-product in the extraction of the metal, iron.[Fe2O3 is reduced to iron with coke]Zinc pyrites can also be heated in air as follows:2ZnO (s) + 3O2 (g)2SO2 (g) + 2ZnO (s) 6. Hafiz Akmal 6 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industrySTAGE 2: FORMATION OF SULPHUR TRIOXIDEa) Pure, dry sulphur dioxide is mixed with dry oxygen in excess and passed over vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5 as catalyst at a temperature of 450C - 550C and a pressure of 1 atmosphere. The conditions ensure the maximum production of sulphur trioxide: 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g)b) The reaction takes place in a heat converter.c) Excess air is used to ensure higher percentage of SO3 produced. 7. Hafiz Akmal 7CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry STAGE 3:FORMATION OF SULPHURIC ACIDa) The sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form a product called oleum, H2S2O7. This is carried out until the concentrated sulphuric acid has reached a concentration of 99.5%. SO3 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) H2S2O7 (l)b) The product, oleum will not show any property of an acid. This is because, oleum will not ionise without the presence of water.c) Water is then added to the oleum to produce concentrated sulphuric acid. H2S2O7 (l) + H2O (l)2H2SO4 (l)d) The reaction in (a) and (b) is equivalent to dissolving sulphur trioxide in water. SO3 (g) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (aq)e) However, this reaction is not carried out in industry. This is because the reaction is too vigorous.f) It produces a large cloud of sulphuric acid mist. This mist is corrosive and pollutes the air. 8. Hafiz Akmal 8 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry CONTACT PROCESS: WaterConcentrated H2SO4 O2 , V2O5, 450C, 1 atmconcentated Oleumsulphuric H2S2O7 acid, H2SO4Burnt in air Sulphur trioxide SO3Sulphurdioxide SO2 Sulphur Figure 2:- Flow chart of Contact Process 9. Hafiz Akmal 9 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryThe industrial process in the Manufactured of Sulphuric Acid 10. Hafiz Akmal 10CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryUSES OF AMMONIA IN INDUSTRY:Examples are ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate and urea.The first two are prepare through neuralisation but urea isproduced by the reaction of ammonia with carbon dioxide. The To reaction involved are as the following:manufacturenitrogenousa) 2NH3 (g) + H2SO4 (aq) (NH4)2SO4 (s) ammonium sulphate fertilisersb) NH3 (g) + HNO3 (aq) NH4NO3 (aq) ammonium nitratec) 2NH3 (g) + CO2 (g) (NH2)2CO (s) + H2O (l) ureaHaving a low melting point,liquefied ammonia makes a good As a cooling cooling agent in refrigerators andagentair conditioners.It neutralizes the organic acids formed To prevent theby microorganisms in latex, therebycoagulation ofpreventing coagulation and preserving latex in the the latex in liquid form. rubber industry Ammonia is converted to nitric acid in the Ostwald process: 1) ammonia is first oxidised to nitrogen monoxide, NO, byoxygen in the presence of platinum as catalyst at 900C. To manufacture 4NH3 (g) + 5O2 (g) Pt/900C 4NO (aq) + 6H2O (l) nitric acid in2) nitrogen monoxide is further oxidised to nitrogen industrydioxide.2NO (g) + O2 (g)2NO2 (g) 3) Nitrogen dioxide and oxygen are dissolved in water toproduced nitric acid.4NO2 (g) + O2 (g) + H2O (l) 4HNO3 (aq)a) Nitric acid is manufactured from ammonia beforeTo manufacture being used to make explosive like trinitrotoluene explosive (TNT).b) Nitric acid, in this case, is reacted with organic substances like toluene. 11. Hafiz Akmal 11 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry EXPERIMENT TO INVESTIGATE THEPROPERTIES OF AMMONIAAim:-To investigate the properties of ammoniaMaterial:-0.1 mol dm ammonia solution, 0.1 mol dm sodium hydroxidesolution, ammonia chloride, calcium hydroxide, concentratedhydrochloric acid, soda lime, distilled water, red litmus paper, Phpaper.Apparatus:-Test tubes, beaker, U-tube, Bunsen burner, glass rod, deliverytube, stoppers.Procedure:-a) Preparation of ammonia gas:1. Some ammonium chloride is mixed with some calcium hydroxide.2. The apparatus as shown in Figure 3 is set up 12. Hafiz Akmal 12CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry 3. The mixture is heated 4. The ammonia gas produced is collected in a few test tubes.The test tubes containing ammonia gas must be closed withstoppers.b) Alkalinity of ammonia:1. 5.0 cm of 1 mol ammonia solution and 5 cm of 0.1 mol dm sodium hydroxide solution are poured into two separate test tubes.2. A piece of pH paper is dipped into the solution in each test tube.3. The pH values of both solution are recorded.c) Colour, physical state, smell and solubility of ammonia: 1. The colour and physical state of ammonia are observed. 2. The stopper of a test tube containing ammonia gas isremoved and the smell of the gas is identified. 3. A test tube containing ammonia gas is inverted into a beakerof water. 4. All observation are recorded. 13. Hafiz Akmal 13CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryd) Density of ammonia: 1. A test tube containing ammonia gas is held upright andanother test rube containing ammonia gas is held upsidedown. 2. The stopper of the two test tubes are removed. 3. After 20 seconds, a piece of moist red litmus paper is put atthe mouth of each test tube as shown in figure 5. 4. The colour of the red litmus paper is recorded.e) Chemical property of ammonia: 1. One end of a glass rod is dipped into concentratedhydrochloric acid. 2. The glass rod is then put on top of a test tube of ammoniagas. 3. Any change taking place is observed. 14. Hafiz Akmal 14 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryObservation :-Section ObservationInference pH of ammonia ammonia is weak solution is 10 alkalib) pH of sodium sodium hydroxide hydroxide solution is a strong alkali is 14 colourless gasammonia is a pungent smell colourless gas with c)water rushed up a pungent smell and fills up theammonia is very whole test tube soluble in water moist red litmus paper on top of the upright test tube Ammonia gas has does not change escaped from thed) colour. upright test tube Moist red litmusand thus is slightly paper under the less dense than air inverted test tube turns blue Ammonia react with hydrogen Dense white fumese) are formed chloride gas to form ammonium chloride 15. Hafiz Akmal 15 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryDiscussion:-Ammonia is a weak alkali and has a pH of 10Ammonia is a colourless gas with a pungent smellAmmonia is very soluble in water, ionize partially in water to formammonium ions and hydroxideNH3 (g) + H2O (l) = NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)Ammonia is slightly less dense than airAmmonia react with hydrogen chloride gas to form ammoniumchlorideNH3 (g) + HCl (g) = NH4Cl (s)Conclusion:-Ammonia is an alkaline, colourless gas with a pungent smell. It isvery soluble in water and is less dense in than air. It react withhydrogen chloride gas to form dense white fumes of ammoniumchloride 16. Hafiz Akmal 16CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryHABER PROCESS 17. Hafiz Akmal 17 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryThe manufacture of ammonia through the Haber Process 18. Hafiz Akmal 18CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryPREPARATION OF AMMONIA FERTILISERAim:-To prepare ammonium sulphate.Material:-1 mol dm-2 sulphuric acid, 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution, methylorange, filter paperApparatus:-25.0 cm pipette, burette, conical flask, white tile, retort stand andclamp, beaker, glass rod, evaporating dish, filter funnel, Bunsenburner, tripod stand, wire gauze.Procedure:-a) Determining the volume of sulphuric acid that will neutralize 25.0 cm of ammonia solution:- 1. 25.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is transferred by apipette to a clean conical flask. 2. Three drops of methyl orange indicator are added to thealkali. The solution turns yellow. 19. Hafiz Akmal 19 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry3. A clean burette is filled with 1 mol dm-2 sulphuric acid and clamped to a retort stand. The initial burette reading is recorded.4. The conical flask with its content is placed on a white tile below the burette as shown in figure 6 below.5. The sulphuric acid is added slowly into the conical flask. The conical flask is swirled gently throughout the titration.6. The addition of sulphuric acid is stopped when the indicator changes from yellow to orange. The final burette reading is recorded.7. The volume of acid needed to completely neutralize the 25.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is calculated. Let this volume V cm. 20. Hafiz Akmal 20 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryb) Preparation ammonium sulphate salt:- 1. 25.0 cm of 2 mol dm-3 ammonia solution is pipetted into aclean conical flask. No indicator is added. 2. V cm of 1 mol sulphuric acid is added from the burette to theammonia solution. 3. The mixture in the conical flask is transferred to anevaporating dish and heated until a saturated solution isformed. 4. The hot, saturated salt solution is left to cool forcrystallization to occur. 5. The crystal of ammonium sulphate formed are filtered,ashed and dried between sheets of filter paper.Observation:-A colourless solution is formed when sulphuric acid is added toammonia solution.The crystal obtained are white in colour 21. Hafiz Akmal 21CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryDiscussion:-The equation for the reaction is:H2SO4 (aq) + 2NH4OH (aq) (NH4)2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O (l)Methyl orange is an acid-base indicator used to determine theend point of the titration.The first titration is carried out to determine the exact volume ofsulphuric acid required to completely neutralize the 25.0 cm ofammonia solution.The salt solution in the first titration is discarded because it iscontaminated by methyl orange.The ammonium sulphate solution should not be heated untildryness because ammonium sulphate decomposes when it isoverheated.The weight of ammonium sulphate obtained from the activity isalways less than the theorical value. This is because some of thesalt is not fully crystallized out and still remains in the solution.Other ammonium salt such as ammonium nitrate can be preparedfrom the reaction between nitric acid and ammonium solution.Conclusion:-Ammonium sulphate and other ammonium fertilizers can beprepared by neutralizing ammonia solution with the respectiveacids. 22. Hafiz Akmal 22 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryTHE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE METAL 23. Hafiz Akmal 23CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA Ammonia turns the damp red litmus paper blue. The gas is less dense than air +- NH3 + H2O NH4 OH alkalineAn inverted filter funnel is usedgas, colurless and pungentto prevent sucking back of watergas Aqueous solutions of ammoniareact with metal ions (exceptNa+, K+, and Ca2+) to produceprecipitate of metal hydroxideAmmonia is weak alkali whichreacts with dilute acids inneutralization to produce salt. Ammonia gas burns in oxygen to2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 produce nitrogen monoxide gas 4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O 24. Hafiz Akmal 24CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryALLOYMeaning and purpose of making alloy:-Alloying is a process of mixing two or more metals (or mixingmetals with element such carbon) which cannot be separatedusing physical wayArrangement of atoms in alloys:- Pure metal A Pure metal B Alloys 25. Hafiz Akmal 25 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryCOMPARE THE HARDNESS OF A PUREMETAL AND ITS ALLOYSAim:- To compare the hardness of a pure metal and its alloy.Problem Statement:- Are alloys harder than pure metal ?Hypothesis:- Bronze is harder than cooper.Variables:- Manipulated: Different types of materials (cooper & bronze) Responding: diameter of the dent Controlled: diameter of steel ball bearing, height of the weight, mass of the weight.Operational definition:-1) If the diameter of the dent is smaller, then the material is harderMaterials:-2) Cooper block, bronze block, cellophane tape 26. Hafiz Akmal 26CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryApparatus:-3) Retort stand and clamp, 1-kg weight, metre ruler, steel ball bearing, thread.Procedure:-1) A steel ball bearing is taped onto a cooper block using cellophane tape.2) A 1-kg weight is hung at a height of 50 cm above the cooper block as shown in the figure 8.3) The weight is allowed to drop onto the ball bearing.4) The diameter of the dent made by the ball bearing on the cooper block is measured.5) Steps 1-4 are repeated twice on the other parts of the cooper block in order to obtain an average value for the diameter of dents formed.6) Steps 1-5 are repeated using a bronze block to replace the cooper block.7) The reading are recorded in the table. 27. Hafiz Akmal 27CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryResults:-DIAMETER OF THE DENT (mm)METAL123averageCooper 2.92.82.92.9Bronze 2.12.22.22.2Discussion:-1) The smaller the diameter of the dent, the harder and stronger is the material.2) The average diameter of the dent made on the surface on the cooper block is bigger than the bronze block.3) Based on the result, bronze is harder than cooper.Conclusion:- The hypothesis is accepted. 28. Hafiz Akmal 28CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry EXAMPLE OF ALLOYSBrassStainless BronzeSteelBronzesteelEXAMPLEOF ALLOYManganeseSteelPewterStainless steel Manganese steel 29. Hafiz Akmal 29 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry THE RATE OF RUSTING OF IRON, STEEL,AND STAINLESS STEELAim:- To compare the rate of rusting of iron, steel and stainless steel.Problem statement:- How does the rate of rusting of iron, steel and stainless steel differ?Hypothesis:- Iron rust faster than steel, and steel rust faster than stainless steel.Variables:- Manipulated variable: Different types of nails Responding variable: Intensity & amount of blue colour Controlled variable: Size of nails, concentration of solution used, durations for rusting.Operational definition:- The more intense the blue colour formed, the higher is the rate of rusting. 30. Hafiz Akmal 30 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryMaterials:-Iron nail, steel nail, stainless steel nail, jelly solution, potassiumhexacyanoferrate(lll) solution, water, sandpaper.Apparatus:-Test tubes, test tube rack.Procedure:-1) The nails are rubbed using sandpaper to remove the rust from the surface of the nails.2) The iron nail placed in the test tube A, the steel nail in test tube B and the stainless steel nail in test tube C.3) A 5% jelly solution is prepared by adding 5 g of jelly into 100 cm of boiling water. A few drops of potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution are then added to the jelly solution.4) The hot jelly solution is poured into the three test tubes until all the nails are fully immersed.5) The test tubes are placed in a test tube rack and left aside for three days. The intensity of the blue colour is observed.6) All observation are recorded in the table. 31. Hafiz Akmal 31CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryObservation:-Test tube Intensity of blue colourInferenceAVery High Rusting occurs very fastB Low Rusting occurs slowlyCNil No rusting occursDiscussion:-1) When iron rust, each iron atom loses two electrons to form an iron(ll) ion, Fe2+. Fe (s) = Fe2+ (aq) + 2e- (aq)2) Potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution is added to the jelly solution as an indicator to detect iron(ll) ions.3) When there is iron(ll) ion, potassium hexacyanoferrate(lll) solution will form dark blue colouration.4) The higher the intensity of the blue colour, the higher is the rate of rusting.5) Solidified jelly solution is used to trap and see the blue colouration clearly. This is because diffusions occurs the slowest in solids.6) Based on the observation, iron rust faster than steel. Stainless steel does not rust.7) The nail made from stainless steel does not rust. This is because this nail is an alloy of iron with carbon, chromium and nickel. 32. Hafiz Akmal 32CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry8) The nail made from steel will rust slowly. The presence of carbon atoms will make the steel stronger than iron but does not prevent it from rusting.9) Rusting of iron is an example of corrosion. When corrosion occurs, the metal loses electrons to form metal iron.Conclusion:-Iron rust faster than steel. Stainless steel does not rust.Hypothesis is accepted. 33. Hafiz Akmal 33CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryCOMPOSITONS OF ALLOYS & THEIR USES AlloyComposition Properties UsesCu 75%Hard, strong,CupronickelCoinsNi 25%resist corrosionAl 95% Aeroplane part, electric cablesDuralumin Cu 4% Light, strong racing bicyclesMg 1%Fe 99%Hard, strong,SteelVehicles, bridges, buildings C 1% cheapFe 73% Kitchen appliance, watches,Stainless Cr 18%Hard, rust knifes, fork, spoons, machinesteelNi 8%resistant parts C 1%Cu 90%Hard, strong,Decorative items, medals,bronzeSn 10%shiningartwork, pots & pansCu 70%Harder and Musical instrument, bell, nails,BrassZn 30%cheaper than Cuscrew, and potsPb 50%Low meltingSolder Welding, soldering workSn 50%point, strongSn 91%Malleable,Pewter Sb 7%ductile, rustDecorative items,souvenirsCu 2% resistantAl 70% Tyre rim of racing car, skeletalMagnalium Light, strongMg 30% body of aeroplane 34. Hafiz Akmal 34 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry POLYMERlarge moliculethat is in the formof long chain withhigh RMMPOLYMERmade up of many two types:-monomers whichjoin together- natural polymerthrough process- syntetic polymercalled polymerisation 35. Hafiz Akmal 35CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryNATURAL POLYMERMonomeracid MonomerglucoseMonomerisopreneamino Eg: in starch and (2-methylbuta-1,3Eg: in muscle, skin,cellulose diene)silk, hairs, wools, and Eg: in latexfurs 36. Hafiz Akmal 36CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry SYNTHETIC POLYMER & IT USESSynthetic polymers are polymers made in industry from chemicalsubstances.Many of the raw materials for synthetic polymers are obtained frompetroleum, after refining and cracking process.SyntheticSynthetic fibres Thermoplastic rubber (long chained polymer that withstandstreching) Nylon (monomers: Polyvinyl chloride(PVC)Styrene- butadlenediamine and dicarboxylic (monomers: rubber (SBR) (monomers:acid) chloroethene) styrene & butadlene. eg:- synthetic eg:- rain clothes, watereg:- shoe soles & tyres textile, stringpipesNeoprene (monomers: Terrylene (monomers: Polythenechloroprene) diol and dicarboxylic (monomers: ethene) eg:- gloves, electric wireacid) eg:- batteryinsulator, water pipeseg:- fishing net cases, pails, plastic bags Polystytrene Butyl rubber (monomers: (monomers:isobutylene & isoprene)phenylethene)eg:- inner tubing of eg:- toys, disposable cuptyre, hoses, shoe soles and plates Perspex (monomers:Polypropene methyl metacrylate)(monomers: propene) eg:- spectacles, car lamps eg:- plastic bottles 37. Hafiz Akmal 37 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryWHY USE SYNTETIC POLYMERS IN DAILY LIFE?Strong &light easilycan be mademoulded or to haveshaped & be specialcolouredSynthetic propertiespolymers able to resistcheapcorrosion 38. Hafiz Akmal 38 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTIONRESULTING FROM THE DISPOSAL OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERSAIR POLLUTION- caused by burning of plastic eg: burning of PVC will produce dioxin. (dioxin willdestroy human immunesystem, reproductive system & nervous system Effects of improperDisposal of Synthetic SOIL POLLUTION Polymer- plastic thrown on land fill up WATER POLLUTIONour living spaces- plastic will stop the flow of- destroy the beauty of river water and drains. this environment will cause flash floods.-plastic also cause the soil not - plastic also cause the death suitable for planting because of marine organism if theyplastic inhibit the growth ofmistaken the plastic as food. root 39. Hafiz Akmal 39 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry GLASSGlass:- The major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2 which found in sand.ri Impermeable to liquid Electrical Transparent insulatorProperties of glasshard but Heat insulator brittleChemicallyinert 40. Hafiz Akmal 40CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryTYPES, COMPOSITION, PROPERTIES, AND USES OF GLASSGLASSCOMPOSITIONPROPERTIES USES Low melting point Glass containerSiO2 70% Mouldable into shapes Glass panesNa2O 15% Cheap Mirror Soda lime glassCaO 10%Breakable Lamps and bulbsOthers 4%Can withstand highPlates and bowls heatBottles High density andContainers for drinks refractive indexand foodSiO2 70% Glittering surfaceDecorative glassLead glass (crystal)Na2O 20% SoftCrystal glasswarePbO 10% Low melting point Lens for spectacles (600C) Resistant to high heatGlass apparatus in labSiO2 80% &chemical reactionCooking utensilsBorosilicate glassB2O3 13% Does not break easily(Pyrex) Na2O 4% Allow infra-red raysAl2O3 2% but no ultra-violet rays High melting pointScientific apparatus (1700C)like lens on Expensive spectrometer SiO2 99%Fused silicate glass Allow ultraviolet toOptical lens B2O3 1% pass throughLab apparatus Difficult to melt or mould into shape 41. Hafiz Akmal 41CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryCERAMICSCeramics:-Ceramic is manufactured substances made from clay that is dried,and heated in a kiln at a very high temperatureThe main component of clay is aluminosilicate (aluminum oxideand silicon dioxide) with small quantities of sand and feldspar.Unlike glass, ceramic cannot be recycled.Kaolinite is a high quality white clay that contains hydratedaluminosilicate, Al2O32SiO22H2O.extremelyhard &strong butbrittleable tohas a very withstand high and resist melting corrosionProperties pointof ceramics good insulator of inert toelectricitychemicals and heat 42. Hafiz Akmal 42CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryTHE DIFFERENT CLASES OF CERAMIC GROUP COMPOSITIONMineralQuartz SiO2 Calcite CaCO3Cement materialMixture of CaSiO3 and ammonium silicateOxide of ceramic Aluminium oxide Al2O3 Silicon dioxide SiO2 Magnesium oxide MgONon-oxides of ceramicSilicon nitride Si3N4 Silicon carbide SiC Boron nitride BN Boron carbide B4C3 43. Hafiz Akmal 43 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryTHE USES OF IMPROVED GLASS ANDCERAMICS FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSESGLASS OPTICAL FIBRE CONDUCTING GLASSGLASS-CERAMIC CERAMICPHOTOCHROMIC GLASS A pure silica glass thread that a type of glass that can conduct Rearrange its atoms into regularSUPERCONUCTOR sensitive to light intensityconducts light. electricity.patterns by heating glass to form superconductor can conduct the glass darken when exposed this fibres can transmit messages produce by embedding a thin strong material electricity at low temoerature to sunlight but became clearmodulated onto light waves. layer of conducting material in it can withstand high without resistance, loss ofwhen light intensity decresase. used inmedical instrument, LANglass.temperature, chemical attacks electrical energy as heat used in windows, sunglasses ad adding a layer of indium tin(iv) used in used to make light instrument controloxide (ITO) acts as an electrical tile, cookware, rockets, engine magnet, electricconductor.blocksmotors, electrical generators used in the making of LCD 44. Hafiz Akmal 44CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industry COMPOSITE MATERIALSA composite material is structural material formed bycombining two or more materials with different physicalproperties, producing a complex mixture.They are used to make various substances in daily lifebecause of the following reasons:-a) Metals corrode and are ductile and malleableb) Glass and ceramic break easilyc) Metal are good conductors but have high resistant, leading to loss of electrical energy as heat.d) Plastic and glass can withstand heat to a certain level only 45. Hafiz Akmal 45 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryCOMPOSITE PROPERTIES OF PROPERTIES OFCOMPONENTUSES MATERIALCOMPONENT COMPOSITEconcretehard but brittlestrongerconstruction of roadlow tensile strengh higher tensile strength rocket launching padsdoes not corrodehigh-rise buildingseasilycheaperReinforced concrete can be moulded intoshapesteel strong in tensile can withstand verystrengthhigh applied forceexpensive can support verycan corrode heavy loadCooper(ll) oxideInsulator ofConducts electricityMagnetically levitatedYttrium oxide electricity without resistancetrain Superconductor Barium oxidewhen cooled by liquid TransformernitrogenElectric cableComputer partsGlass Transparent Reduce refraction ofInformation displayNot sensitive tolight panelslight Control the amount of Light detector devicelight passed through it Car windshieldsauto. Optical lensPhotochromic glassSilver chloride Sensitive to lightHas the ability toor silver change colour andbromide become darker whenexposed to ultravioletlightGlass with lowTransparent Low material cost Transmit data usingrefraction indexDoes not reflectReflect light rays andlight waves inlight raysallow to travel along telecommunicationsthe fibreFibre opticsCan transmitelectronic data orGlass withsignal, voice andhigherimagerefractive indexglass high densityhigh tensile strength car bodiesstrong but brittlemoulded and shapedhelmetsnon-flexibleinert to chemicalsskieslight, strong, toughracketsFibre glass polyester lightnon-flammable furnitureplastic flexibleimpermeable to waterinflammableresilientelastic but weakflexible 46. Hafiz Akmal 46 CHEMISTRY FOLIO chapter 9: Manufacture Substances in industryin the medical field: to replace organs in the form of plasticcomposite organUses of compositematerial car part now usecomposite materialsronger buildingsinstead iron andare built by usingsteel. this increase reinforce concretethe speed of the car and fuel saver