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  • 1.Impression Sunrise from the 1874 Impressionist Show

2. Introduction to PhotographyPre-Photographic Inventions Early PhotographsCamera obscuraDaguerreotype A box (in earlier times a room) A unique item of very high clarity with a hole and a lens at one end Has a mirror surface An image is projected onto the Three-dimensional effects are opposite endstriking The image is traceable with pen Highly vulnerable to physical and paper damage and scratchingPhotogram Placed in an individualized frame A flat object is placed on photo-with a top sensitive paper Very expensive procedure The paper is exposed to light and a No negatives silhouette is rendered Calotype Makes a positive and a negative image Negatives were not clear Has a grainy texture 3. Questionsabout the Nature of Photography Photography has become accepted as a fact. How can wequestion the facts that photographs present? How can the vantage point change our impression of asubject in a photograph? How is time the subject of all photographs? Is photography a mirror of the world, or a window onto theworld? 4. PhotographyFrom 1826 5. Louis Daguerre 1787 1851 Produced his first photo in 1939 Inventor of the Daguerreotype This used a copper plate with a finely polished silver layer on its surface. It was madelight-sensitive by reaction with iodine (and later bromine) vapour which produced acoating of silver iodide. Following an exposure - perhaps 10 minutes using a camera inbright sunlight - the almost invisible image was made visible by suspending the plateabove a heated mercury bath. The mercury did not alter the silver iodide, but where animage had been formed this consisted of small particles of silver. This combined withthe mercury to form a light gray silver amalgam in the lighter parts of the image. Thedarker parts of the scene were unchanged silver iodide and this was dissolved using astrong salt (sodium chloride) solution, revealing the polished silver surface. Later hypo(sodium thiosulphate) was found to be better for this fixing process. 6. Early Photography Daguerre, Still Life in a Studio First photographs imitate painted still lives Long shutter speeds meant that inanimate objects were a natural choice Variety of textures in this photography to reveal its capabilities cloth, flask, sculpted cherub heads, framed painting, relief sculpture, etc. Reference to the vanitas of Dutch still life painting 7. Atelier of the Artist, 1837 8. Henry Fox Talbot 1800 1877 Invented the Calotype 9. Henry Fox Talbot, 1844 10. 3 daughters, c. 1846 11. Ever open to new ideas and discoveries, Nadar wasthe first in France to make photographsunderground with artificial light and the first tophotograph Paris from the basket of an ascendantballoon. Even though a proponent of heavier-than-air traveling devices, he financed the constructionof Le Giant, a balloon that met with an unfortunateaccident on its second trip. Nonetheless, he wasinstrumental in setting up the balloon postal servicethat made it possible for the French government tocommunicate with those in Paris during theGerman blockade in the Franco-Prussian War of1870.Ruined financially by this brief but devastatingconflict, Nadar continued to write andphotograph, running an establishment with his sonPaul that turned out slick commercial work.Always a rebel, at one point he lent the photostudio to a group of painters who wished to bypassthe Salon in order to exhibit their work, thusmaking possible the first exhibition of theImpressionists in April, 1874. Although he was tooperate still another studio in Marseilles during the1880s and 90s Nadars last photographic idea ofsignificance was a series of exposures made by hisson in 1886 as he interviewed chemist EugeneChevreul on his 100th birthday, thusforeshadowing the direction that picture journalismwas to take. During his last years he continued tothink of himself as "a daredevil, always on thelookout for currents to swim against." At hisdeath, just before the age of ninety, he had outlivedall those he had satirized in the famousPantheon, which had started him in photography Nadar 12. 18551863 13. Nadar andPhotography fromballoon 14. By Daumier 15. Portrait photographybecomes popular withshorter shutter speedsDeeper richer black andwhite tones in more modernphotographyFigures still had to hold apose for a long timeStern, severe, commandingpresenceArtistic genius at thesummit of his careerAutocratic lookingManetDelacroix 16. Muybridge, HorseGallopingMuybridge settled adebate about whether ornot a horse, in fullgallop, would naturallyhave all four hoofs off theground at the same timeSuccessive camera shotsat paced intervals revealedthe answerMultiple-camera motionstudies with azoopraxiscopeThe transitional figurebetween still photographyand motion pictures1878 17. Theodore Gericault, 1821 18. Pre-Raphaelites The Pre-Raphaelite BrotherhoodThe Brotherhoods early doctrines(also known as the Pre-were expressed in fourRaphaelites) was a group ofdeclarations:English painters, poets and 1. To have genuine ideas to express;critics, founded in 1848 by John2. To study Nature attentively, so asEverret Millais, Dante Gabriel to know how to express them;Rossetti and William Holman 3. To sympathise with what is directHunt.and serious and heartfelt in Against the what they perceived as previous art, to the exclusion ofthe mechanistic approach to artwhat is conventional and self- parading and learned by rote;from the Mannerists on. Feltraphaels classical influence to be 4. And, most indispensable of all, to produce thoroughly good picturesbad. and statues. Often considered the first avant-garde movement in art 19. Christ In the House of His Parents, John Everett Millais, 1850 20. The Barbizon School Name derived from a village in Northern France Rejected Classical Landscape style and insisted onDirect Observation Inspired by Constable (Salon of 1824) Closely allied with Realists, pre-cursors to theImpressionists Artists included Millet and Courbet as well as Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and Theodore Rousseau 21. Ville dAvray, 1867 22. Impressionism Timeline 1863 Le Dejeuner sur lherbe 1870 Franco-Prussian War& the Salon des Refuses (50 1871 France defeatedwomen artists, 13%) 100 or more women at theNapolean III unseated, Adolpheofficial salon yearlyTheirs becomes President of the 1865 Olympia accepted andThird Republicjeered. American Civil WarKaiser Wilhelm crowned Emperorends of Germany at Versailles 1866- Baudelaire dies, Monet at 1874 The First Impressionistthe SalonExhibtion 1867 - Maximillian is executed.Salon of Newcomers(Renoir, Monet, Pissaro, Degas) 23. Impressionist Artists of Note Eduoard Manet Claude Monet Berthe Morisot Auguste Renoir Camille Pissaro Edgar Degas James McNeil Whistler Mary Cassatt August Rodin 24. Eduoard Manet 1832 1883 Considered the Godfather of the Impressionists Never Showed in an Impressionist Exhibition Well educated, close friends with Baudelaire andZola Achieved both Notoriety and some recognitionthrough the official Salon Became Friends with Monet and painted some auplein air Influenced other Impressionists through his uniquetechnique 25. RealismManet, Luncheon on the Grass A modern response to Giorgione and Raphael Rejected by the official salon and exhibited in the Salon of the Refuses Models are obviously posing, no unity of figures and landscape She is undressed rather than nude Two men dressed in contemporary clothes contrasts with the nudity ofthe foreground female Nude figure directly engages us Still life very unrealistic Sketchy broad brushstrokes Triangular composition Flattening of perspective 26. The Judgement of ParisEngraving after Raphael Marcantonio Raimondic. 1516 27. Giorgione, Pastoral Concert, 1508-09 28. Olympia, 1863 (Victorine Meurent) 29. Manet, Olympia Based on Giorgione and Titian Unashamed of nudity; direct confrontational stare Absence of modeling Doubtful morals suggested; prostitute receiving flowers from anadmirer Created a scandal at the Salon of 1865 Black cat: an exclamation point at her feet Bouquet from a customer Cold and practical look, no curiosity, no joy Realistic nude, contemporary setting Contrast of black and white tones Black servant caused concern: references to animal behavior and thelower classes 30. Ingres, The Grand Odalisque1814 31. Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538 32. RealismManet, Bar at the Folies-Bergere Melancholy and absent gaze atcustomer ordering a drink Mirrors reflect the world aroundher Artificiality of perspective Strong verticals down center Impressionist brushwork Fruit and flowers defined by a fewbrushstrokes Is the woman in the back areflection of the main figure in amirror? 33. Influence of Japanese prints1867 Exposition Universelle in Paris introduced Japaneseculture to Europe. European artists were inspired by thefollowing characteristics of Japanese woodblock prints: 1 Flat quality that lacked perspective 2 Flat areas of color 3 Odd angles of composition 4 Curving lines 5 Charm, without sentimentality 6 Lack of shadow 34. Hokusai is generally more appreciated in the West than in Japan. His prints, as well as those by other Japaneseprintmakers, were imported to Paris in the mid-19th century. They were enthusiastically collected, especially bysuch impressionist artists as Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, whose work wasprofoundly influenced by them 35. Sanno Festival Procession at KojimachiI-chome1857 (130 Kb); From "One HundredFamous Views of Edo"; Woodblockprint, 13 1/4 x 8 5/8 in; The BrooklynMuseumHiroshige (1797-1858), Japanesepainter and printmaker, known especially for hislandscape prints. The last great figure of the Ukiyo-e, orpopular, school of printmaking, he transmuted everydaylandscapes into intimate, lyrical scenes that made himeven more successful than his contemporary, Hokusai. 36. Ushimachi, Takanawa1857 (130 Kb); From "One HundredFamous Views of Edo"; Woodblock print,13 1/4 x 8 5/8 in; The Brooklyn