Basic principles of photo editing

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Basic Principles of photo editing

Basic Principles of photo editing

What is photo editing?Photo editingencompasses the processes of alteringimages, whether they aredigital photographes, traditionalphotochemical photographs, orillustrations. Traditional analog image editing is known asphoto retouching, using tools such as anairbrushto modify photographs, or editing illustrations with any traditionalart medium.

Graphic softwareprograms, which can be broadly grouped intovector graphics editors,raster graphics editors, and3D modelers, are the primary tools with which a user may manipulate, enhance, and transform images. Many image editing programs are also used torenderor createcomputer artfrom scratch

Basics of image editing

Rasterimages are stored in a computer in the form of a grid of picture elements, orpixels. These pixels contain the image's color and brightness information. Image editors can change the pixels to enhance the image in many ways. However,vector graphicssoftware, such asAdobe Illustrator,CorelDRAW,Xara Designer ProorInkscape, are used to create and modify vector images, which are stored as descriptions oflines,Bzier curves, andtextinstead of pixels

. It is easier torasterizea vector image than tovectorizea raster image; how to go about vectorizing a raster image is the focus of much research in the field ofcomputer vision. Vector images can be modified more easily, because they contain descriptions of the shapes for easy rearrangement. They are also scalable, being rasterizable at anyresolution.

Difference between Raster And vector imagesRASTERRaster imagesuse many colored pixels or individual building blocks to form a complete image. JPEGs, GIFs and PNGs are common raster image types. Almost all of the photos found on the web and in print catalogs are raster images.vectorVector images, alternatively, allow for more flexibility. Constructed using mathematical formulas rather than individual colored blocks, vector file types such as EPS, AI and PDF* are excellent for creating graphics that frequently require resizing.

SPOT THE DIFFERENCEJPEG, PNG,GIF,BMPEPS, SVG

SPOT THE DIFFERENCE

SPOT THE DIFFERENCE

3D MODELINGIn3D computer graphics,3D modeling(ormodelling) is the process of developing a mathematical representation of anythree-dimensionalsurfaceof an object (either inanimate or living) viaspecialized software. The product is called a3D model. It can be displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called3D renderingor used in acomputer simulationof physical phenomena. The model can also be physically created using3D printingdevices.

COMPARISON OF 2D TO 3D

IMAGE FORMATSRASTERJPEG(/dep/ JAY-peg) is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.Portable Network Graphics (PNG/p/) is a raster graphics file format that supports lossless data compression.PNGwas created as an improved, non-patented replacement for Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), and is the most used lossless image compression format on the Internet.GIF a lossless format for image files that supports both animated and static images.TheBMPfile format, also known as bitmap image file or device independent bitmap (DIB) file format or simply a bitmap, is a raster graphics image file format used to store bitmap digital images, independently of the display device (such as a graphics adapter), especially on Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems

IMAGE FORMATSVECTOREncapsulated Postscript Vector graphics (Adobe Illustrator)EPSis a file extension for a graphics file format used in vector-basedimagesin Adobe Illustrator.EPSstands for Encapsulated PostScript. AnEPSfile can contain text as well as graphics.Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an XML-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics with support for interactivity and animation. TheSVGspecification is an open standard developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) since 1999.SVGimages and their behaviors are defined in XML text files.

IMAGE FORMATS3D.3ds is one of the file formats used by the Autodesk 3ds Max 3D modeling, animation and rendering software.fbxis an exchange format, in particular for interoperability between Autodesk products and other Digital content creation (DCC) software packages.

IMAGE EDITINGFEATURES OF IMAGE EDITORS

SELECTIONOne of the prerequisites for many of the applications mentioned below is a method ofselectingpart(s) of an image, thus applying a change selectively without affecting the entire picture. Most graphics programs have several means of accomplishing this, such as:a marquee tool for selecting rectangular or other regular polygon-shaped regions,alasso toolfor freehand selection of a region,amagic wand toolthat selects objects or regions in the image defined by proximity of color orluminance,vector-based pen tools,as well as more advanced facilities such asedge detection, masking,alpha compositing, and color and channel-based extraction. The border of a selected area in an image is often animated with themarching antseffect to help the user to distinguish the selection border from the image background.

SELECTION TOOLSSELECTION (MARCHING ANTS)

LAYERSAnother feature common to many graphics applications is that ofLayers, which are analogous to sheets of transparentacetate(each containing separate elements that make up a combined picture), stacked on top of each other, each capable of being individually positioned, altered andblendedwith the layers below, without affecting any of the elements on the other layers.

MULTIPLE LAYERS

IMAGE SIZEImage editors can resize images in a process often calledimage scaling, making them larger, or smaller. Highimage resolutioncameras can produce large images which are often reduced in size forInternetuse.

CROPPINGDigital editors are used tocrop images. Cropping creates a new image by selecting a desired rectangular portion from the image being cropped. The unwanted part of the image is discarded. Image cropping does not reduce the resolution of the area cropped. Best results are obtained when the original image has a high resolution. A primary reason for cropping is to improve the image composition in the new image.

CLONINGTheClone tooluses the current brush to copy from an image or pattern. It has many uses: one of the most important is to repair problem areas in digital photos

IMAGE ORIENTATIONImage editors are capable of altering an image to be rotated in any direction and to any degree.Mirror imagescan be created and images can be horizontallyflippedor verticallyflopped. A small rotation of severaldegreesis often enough to level thehorizon, correctverticality(of a building, for example), or both. Rotated images usually requirecroppingafterwards, in order to remove the resulting gaps at the image edges.

PERSPECTIVEthe art of drawing solid objects on a two-dimensional surface so as to give the right impression of their height, width, depth, and position in relation to each other when viewed from a particular point.

SHARPENING AND SOFTENINGSharpening makes images clearer. Too much sharpening causes grains on the surface of the image.Softening makes images softer that removes some of the highly visible flaws. Too much causes the image to blur.

SATURATIONSaturation is an expression for the relative bandwidth of the visible output from a light source.As saturation increases, colors appear more "pure." As saturation decreases, colors appear more "washed-out."

CONTRAST AND BRIGHTENINGcontrast of imagesand brighten or darken the image.Underexposed images can often be improved by using this feature. Brightening lightens the image so the photo brightens up. Brightness is a relative expression of the intensity of the energy output of a visible light source.Adjusting contrast means adjusting brightness because they work together to make a better image

PHOTOMANIPULATION

PHOTO MANIPULATIONPhoto manipulationinvolvestransforming or alteringaphotographusing various methods and techniques to achieve desired results. Some photo manipulations are considered skillful artwork while others are frowned upon as unethical practices, especially when used to deceive the public, such as that used for politicalpropaganda, or to make a product or person look better.

PHOTO MANIPULATIONEXAMPLES

IMAGE EDITING & PHOTOMANIPULATIONDIFFERENCE

PHOTO EDITINGsignifies the regular process used to enchance photos and to create them " Actual editing simple process". Also Includes some of the regular programs used for editing and expose how to use them.PHOTO MANIPULATIONincludes all simple editing techniques and have somme manipulation techniques like erasing, adding objects, adding some graphical effects, background correction, creating incredible effect, change elements in an image, adding styles, eliminating blemishes from a person's face and changing the features of a person's body with unbelievable lookDIFFERENCES

SUMMARYTYPES OF IMAGESRASTER ( JPEG, PNG, GIF, BMP)VECTOR (EPS, SVG)3D (.3DS, .FBX)IMAGE EDITING FEATURES4S SELECTION, SHARPENING AND SOFTENING, SATURATION2C CROPPING, CLONINGCONTRAST AND BRIGHTENINGLAYERSIMAGE SIZEIMAGE ORIENTATIONPERSPECTIVE

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