Basic DSLR Photography and Videography for AITians

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  • Pakistan Students Association (PSA AIT)Fawad and Adnan

    DSLR Photography, Videography and Photo/Video Editing

    A Workshop on

  • Why this Workshop?

    Note: Our prior apology from those who find the contents too basic.

  • Workshop Contents

    Part 1: DSLR Photography

    Part 2: Photo Editing (Adobe Lightroom)

    Part 3: DSLR Video Shooting

    Part 4: Video Editing (Cyberlink Power Director)

  • Workshop Contents

    Part 1: DSLR Photography

    Part 2: Photo Editing (Adobe Lightroom)

    Part 3: DSLR Video Shooting

    Part 4: Video Editing (Cyberlink Power Director)

  • Part 1: DSLR Photography The basics and 3 Elements of Exposure (shutter

    speed, aperture and ISO)

    Lenses and Focal Lengths

    Summary

    A Quick Settings Slideshow

  • Part 1: DSLR Photography The basics and 3 Elements of Exposure (shutter

    speed, aperture and ISO)

    Lenses and Focal Lengths

    Summary

    A Quick Settings Slideshow

  • Types of Digital Cameras

    3 Main classifications

    Point and Shoot

    Prosumer

    Digital SLR

  • Point and Shoot digital Cameras (P&S)

    Commonly referred to as consumer digital cameras.

    Represent probably 90% of all digital cameras on the market

    Typically small, compact and lightweight

    Targeted at broad majority

    Typically very User-Friendly

    Image Quality has improved drastically

  • Prosumer Digital Cameras

    Common term used to describe advanced models of P&S (now also used to describe many entry level DSLR's)

    Similar in shape and appearance to Digital SLR's

    Typically have extended zoom range (8-12X)

    Typically combine user friendly P&S features with more advanced manual features.

  • Digital SLR (DSLR)

    SLR Stands for Single Lens Reflex

    Have larger sensors, resulting in greater image quality

    Tend to favor manual control

    Much larger and heavier

    Ability to interchange system lenses

  • Entry Level DSLRs

    Canon EOS 100D

    Canon EOS 1200D

    Canon EOS 600D

    Canon EOS 650D

    Canon EOS 700D

    Canon EOS 60D

    Nikon D3200

    Nikon D3300

    Nikon D5200

    Nikon D5300

    Nikon D5500

    Olympus E-PL6

    Fujifilm X-A1

    Sony a3000

    Sony 5000

    Sony 5100

  • Exposure Modes

    There are several modes available which offer a combination of automatic and manual controls.

    Auto, sometimes represented by an A, or simply a green square, is fully automatic functioning. True point and shoot where the camera decides all the settings for you

  • The Manual Mode

  • Know your Camera

  • The Manual Mode The 3 Pillars of Photography

    Shutter Speed

    Aperture, f-stop

    ISO

  • Variables to play with

    Exposure

    Shutter Speed

    ISO ApertureAmount of Grains/Noise

    Depth of field

    Motion Blur

  • Light meter

    Proper Exposure

    Under-exposed Over-exposed

  • The 3 Pillars of Photography

    Shutter Speed

    Aperture, f-stop

    ISO

  • The Shutter Speed

    Shutter Speed

    How long the shutter remains open, exposing the image sensor to light.

    How long the camera sees the picture

    Measured in Seconds, from 30 sec to 1/8000 sec

    The more the shutter speed (bigger denominator of the fraction the lesser time light is allowed to enter the camera), the lesser the exposure.

    30 sec . 10 sec. 1 sec . sec ..1/5 sec . 1/10 sec 1/25 sec ... 1/100 sec ...1/500 sec 1/2000 sec . 1/4000 sec 1/8000 sec

    Shutter Speed is getting higher

    The image is getting darker

    Less amount of light is allowed to enter in the camera

    Shutter opens and closes quickly

  • Shutter Speed

    Fast Shutter Speeds (600 and up) are used to stop motion and will freeze the subject.

  • Shutter Speed

    If the shutter speed is such a low value that the object or camera moves/changes position before the shutter closes, you will get Motion blur.

    Slow Shutter Speeds (1/60 or slower) can be used to portray movement or speed

  • Shutter Speed Very Slow Shutter Speeds (5 sec. or slower) can be used in very low light

    situations to obtain correct exposure, or achieve dramatic effects.

    As your shutter speed decreases, your chances of getting a blurry image increase because you must hold the camera steady for a longer period.Maximum zoom is hard to hold camera steady for a sharp pictureSlowest shutter speed without a tripod is 1/focal length of lens

  • Slow Shutter Speed Fast Shutter Speed

  • Slow shutter speed Fast shutter speed

  • Panning

    During the exposure, the camera is moved in the same direction as the subject.

    Resulting in a reasonably sharp subject and a blurred background

  • Movement Compensation

    Refers to the cameras ability to correct small movements by the user while taking a picture, in order to reduce the blur caused by camera shake.

    Represented differently by different companies:

    Nikon VR Vibration Reduction

    Canon IS Image Stabilization

    Pentax SR Shake Reduction

    Sony SSS Super Steady-Shot

  • Moving Object Shutter Speeds - NO Blur

    Which shutter speed to use for subjects depends on 3 factors:

    How big the object appear in the frame

    Which direction it is moving

    How fast it is moving

  • Moving Object Shutter Speeds - NO Blur

  • Moving Object Shutter Speeds For Blur

    Blur can be used to emphasise movement

    Amount of blur depends on speed of movement of subject and shutter speed

    Shutter Speed (sec)

    Subject Moderate Blur Extreme Blur

    Person Walking 1/30 sec sec

    Person Running 1/60 sec 1/15 sec

    Horse Trotting 1/30 sec 1/8 sec

    Horse Galloping 1/125 sec 1/30 sec

    Car at 30mph (50kph) 1/125 sec 1/30 sec

    Car at 70mph (110kph) 1/250 sec 1/60 sec

    Water 1-2 sec 3 sec +

  • The 3 Pillars of Photography

    Shutter Speed

    Aperture, f-stop

    ISO

  • Aperture f/stop

    Size of the lens opening - Controls the brightness of light that reaches the film

    STOP refers to a change in exposure, whether the shutter speed or aperture is changed

    one stop more exposure means to double the light reaching the film

    one stop less exposure means to half the light reaching the film

    Each f/stop number can be though of as the bottom part of a fraction

    The larger the f/stop number, the smaller the lens opening

    f/11 is a smaller opening than f/4

    f/1.4 f/2 f/2.8 f/4 f/5.6 f/8 f/11 f/16 f/22

  • For example, if you shoot at f/stop 5.6, and then change it to f/8, you are letting exactly half as much light strike the film or sensor.

  • f/stop

    f/stop is getting higher

    The image is getting darker

    Less amount of light is allowed to enter in the camera

    Size of lens opening is getting smaller

    f/1.4 f/2 f/2.8 f/4 f/5.6 f/8 f/11 f/16 f/22

    Depth-of-field is increasing

    BUT

    The area of a scene from foreground to background that will remain acceptably sharp when we focus on a subject is called the depth of field.

    f/22 provides more depth of field than f/4

  • You determine what you want to draw your viewers attention to.

    shallow depth of field

    f/4

    Focus Point on b

  • increased depth of field

    f/22

  • Depth of field

    Compare depth of field at f/3.5 and f/22.

  • Smaller aperture (f/22), deep depth of field Larger aperture (f/4), shallow depth of field

    A wide aperture (small #) will give a shallow DOF which can be used to isolate a subject.

  • Depth of field Depth of Field is not divided equally

    You should note that Depth of Field is roughly divided 1/3 in front of where you are focused and 2/3 behind where you

    are focused

  • The 3 Pillars of Photography

    Shutter Speed

    Aperture, f-stop

    ISO

  • ISO

    Measure of sensitivity of your camera to light.

  • ISO: General Rules and tips

    ISO settings are often rated at 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, and even 3200 on some models

    Use an ISO of 100 or 200 when taking photographs outside in sunny conditions.

    If the sky is overcast or it is evening time, or in a darkened room, then use an ISO within the range of 400 to 800.

    Night time or in cases of low light you might need to set your digital camera ISO to 1600. If not your photo will appear too dark, if at all.

    Using High ISO values causes the sensor to produce much more heat, which creates digital noise in images.

  • ISO Setting

    ISO measures the sensitivity of the image sensor. The lower the number the less sensitive your camera is to light and the finer the grain.

    Set the lowest setting possible to avoid noise

    ISO 100 ISO 3200

  • ISO Setting

  • The fourth Element - White Balance

    White Balance is essentially the camera compensating for the color cast of the light in order to reproduce the correct colors.

    The color cast of light is referred to as its Color Temperature and is rated in degrees Kelvin

    Ranges from Cool to Warm

    Most Digital cameras have Automatic White Balance, but also specific options for different sources of light.

  • Part 1: DSLR Photography The basics and 3 Elements of Exposure (shutter

    speed, aperture and ISO)

    Lenses and Focal Lengths

    Summary

    A Quick Settings Slideshow

  • The lens Light rays strike the subject and reflect in all

    directions. The light hits all parts of the sensor,

    everywhere, in a uniform pattern.

    We need to find a way to aim that light to form an image.

  • The focal plane

    A central question for photographers: do you want your subject to be a larger part of the frame, or a smaller part?

    One way to change this is to move forward or backward.

    A second way is to change the focal length of the lens.

    The point of convergence of refracted light is called the focal point.

    The focal point may be adjusted so that it is exactly at the same point as the film or sensor.

    This is called in focus.

  • Refraction points

    Some lenses bend light quite sharply. These are said to be short or wide-angle lenses.

    Others bend light more gradually, These are long or telephoto lenses.

  • Zoom lens

    Focal length is the measurement of the space between the lens and the focal plane, expressed in millimeters.

    18-55 mm lens

    55-250mm lens

    18-135mm lens

    A lens that is capable of changing focal length is called a zoom lens.

    A fixed focal length lens is sometimes called a prime lens.

    50mm lens

    70mm lens

    300mm lens

    Most zoom lenses sacrifice speed for flexibility. Also, they may be less sharp.

  • Focal length and Zoom

    If a focal length is short, the image takes up less space on the focal plane (sensor or film).

    If it is long, the image takes up more space.

    Therefore, a long lens brings us closer to the subject, like a binoculars.

    The focal length of the lens is usually stamped on the lens barrel or ring.

  • Perspective

    Here is a comparison of perspectives.

  • Wide angle and telephoto

    28mm (wide angle) and 105mm (telephoto). Note sign is about the same size.

    28mm (wide angle) 105mm (telephoto)

  • Telephoto stacking A telephoto, or long focal length, lens gives appearance that objects are

    closer together. Youve probably seen this startling effect on photos of airplanes that seem to be landing right on the highway.

  • Wide Angle Lens vs. Telephoto Lens

  • Focal Length

  • Depth of field (Effect of focal length and distance)

    Depth of field is directly affected by three things:

    F/stop

    Focal length

    Camera-to-subject distance

  • Depth of field and focal length

    If you have a wide-angle lens, your focus can be fairly sloppy and you can still get a sharp photo.

    If you are shooting with a telephoto, depth of field is shallow. Not much beyond the actual subject will be sharp.

  • Depth of field and focal length

  • Depth of field and camera-to-subject distance

    When you get closer to a subject, the depth of field becomes more shallow.

    When you get really close, depth of field may be nearly zero. That is why a macro (close-up) lens requires careful focusing.

  • Macro and depth of field

    Here is a close-up at f/4.5 and f/19.

  • Depth of field in P&S Cameras

    Simple point-and-shoot cameras without a focus mechanism often have normal or wide-angle lenses.

    This is because with these lenses depth of field is large, commonly between 5 feet and 15 feet (1.5 meters to 4.5 meters).

    This means you can snap a subject anywhere in that area and be confident it will look sharp.

  • The Lens Specifications - f/stops and focal lengths

    The longer the telephoto lens, the bigger in diameter it has to be to obtain the same f/stop.

    To obtain f/2 with a 200mm lens, you need a diameter of 100mm.

    This is why fast telephoto and zoom lenses become big heavy pieces of glass, and why they usually cost a LOT of money.

    The fastest lens (lowest f/stop) in theory, is 1.0 f/stop. That doesnt exist, but 1.2 f/stop does. For a price.

    Regular zoom lenses that offer a wide range will have a smaller possible f/stop number at the telephoto end than at the wide-angle end.

    Stamped on the barrel will be something like f/3.5 - f/5.6 or f/4 f/5.6

  • The Lens Specifications - f/stops and focal lengths

    Here are standard f/stops:

    1.4, 1.8 (or 2), 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, 45.

    No one lens offers this entire range.

    Usually the lens speed, or widest possible f/stop, will be stamped on the barrel. Also depth of field at different f/stop and focus combinations.

    Some cameras offer a depth-of-field preview button. This shows you in your viewfinder what will be in focus.

  • Aperture: General Rules and tips

    A larger lens opening (f1.8-3.5) offers the following advantages:

    Allows you to shoot more often with just natural lighting helps to reduce harsh shadows and red-eye caused by flash.

    Allows more light to pass through, the camera will be able to choose a slightly higher shutter speed helps to reduce motion blur.

    Helps to reduce "depth-of-field (for effect).

  • How to read a lens

    Zoom is 18-55mm.

    Speed is f/3.5 (at 18 mm) to 5.6 (at 55mm).

    VR means Vibration Reduction.

    G means no aperture ring.

    AF-S means Auto Focus-Single.

    And of course, the model name is Nikkor DX.

    Some cameras also include filter size.

    Information you need is usually stamped on the front ring.

  • Why a fixed focal length?

    Most of us use zoom lenses nowadays, but fixed focal lengths (prime) have advantages:

    They tend to be sharper.

    They tend to be more simple in construction, so more trouble-free.

    They are cheaper.

    They are usually fasterthe biggest reason they remain popular.

    What is fast? Anything lower than about f/4.

  • Part 1: DSLR Photography The basics and 3 Elements of Exposure (shutter

    speed, aperture and ISO)

    Lenses and Focal Lengths

    Summary

    A Quick Settings Slideshow

  • Shutter Speed The time given to light to enter in camera and creates image

    ApertureThe time given to light to enter in camera and creates image

    ISOThe time given to light to enter in camera and creates image

    30 sec . 1 sec .. 1/101/100..1/1000..1/4000

    f/1.8 f/3.5..f/10.f/22 100, 1604001600.6400

    Sh

    utt

    er

    Sp

    ee

    d

    Ex

    po

    sure

    30 sec

    1/4000 secDarkest but without blur

    Ap

    ert

    ure

    Ex

    po

    sure

    f/1.8

    f/22

    Brightest but blurry

    Darkest but highest DOF

    Brightest but least DOF

    ISO

    Ex

    po

    sure

    100

    6400

    Brightest but grainy/less sharp

    Darkest but less grainy/sharp

  • Rough Guidelines

    Sports

    Night

    Indoor

    Portrait

    Landscape

    High Shutter Speed to avoid motion blur

    High ISO for exposure, To center light meter

    ????

    Low f/stop, To separate object from backgroundHigh f/stop, To bring everything in focus

    e.g. SS = 1/500 sec

    e.g. ISO = 1000

    ?????

    e.g. f/stop = f/2.8

    e.g. f/stop = f/8

  • Summary

  • Summary

  • Shutter Speed and Aperture

    To get a correctly exposed picture, you need a combination of shutter speed and aperture

    Each shutter speed lets in twice as much light as the next faster speed

    1/60 lets in 2x as much light as 1/125

    Each aperture setting lets in twice as much light as the n...